WHY NEVER COMMUNISM or Capitalism/Consumerism: The Third Universal Theory is the ONLY Salvation for our Ailing Planet

In an address given while Muammar presented himself as IMAM at the beautiful Tripoli mosque

In an address given while Muammar presented himself as IMAM at the beautiful Tripoli mosque that you see in many pictures of the Tripoli Port,

on 10 December 1971, Muammar again reiterated that what he and the Libyan Fetah revolutionaries were expounding was NOT COMMUNISM and was a fulfillment of prophecy. Muammar said the following:”The cultural revolution has certainly not come to us from China. It has been fore-shadowed in Islam for centuries. WE MUST EMBARK UPON A SPIRITUAL and cultural revolution, a revolution in which, operating INWARDLY, will enable each one of us to follow the PATH OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, This is the true meaning of that verse in the Quaran which says:’Allah does not change a people’s lot unless they change what is in their hearts.’ ”

This is known as Muammar’s “ZUWARA SPEECH”… The Communists, especially in the Soviet Union at that time HATED this speech of Muammar’s, and openly spoke-up against Muammar AT THAT TIME.

Mirella Bianco asked Muammar in 1974, “Why this reform of the country’s whole way of life and its higher political institutions (into People’s Congresses and People’s Committees) would be interpreted wrongly by the whole rest of the world, Muammar answered Mirella with conviction:”A foreign importation? I do not agree THAT THERE HAS BEEN ANYTHING IMPORTED IN THIS AFFAIR, still less that ANY importation was needed. After all, we do not have to invent new words everytime we undertake something new! When one speaks of ‘revolution’, for example, it is a term in every country. It is the same with the word ‘death’, whether one is in the East or in the West. And ‘confusion’ means confusion all over the world. So much for terminology! But concerning content, the present events in Libya go much further than the Chinese cultural revolution, which incidentally was also, much more a popular than a cultural revolution, This (part) is exactly what is happening here: a popular revolution which cuts a way through administrative red-tape and self-interested groups….From this point of view, the expression ‘cultural revolution’ is a name adopted merely for ease of usage. Unfortunately (probably) the choice will please some Marxists; but that does not alter the fact THAT THERE ARE SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO REVOLUTIONS. First and foremost on the politial level: The Chinese cultural revolution took place to put and end to the influence of the enemies of Maoism. President Mao himself said that there existed in China a bourgeois counter-revolution which the Red Guard would have to root out.WITH US (LIBYANS), ON THE CONTRARY, there was no opposition. Right from the start, we stated that the revolution of 01 September 1969 was only the beginning of a long process set into motion by the armed forces. (they (the armed-forces) could be said to be merely the detonator. THEN THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES WOULD HAVE THE TASK OF CONTINUING, of taking power without any intermediary. And if we did not ask the Arab Socialist Union to undertake this revolution, which is in fact a POPULAR revolution,, it is precisely because, the Arab Socialist Union was constructed by us: That is to say, by the Revolutionary Command Council. It is for the people now to judge the efficiency of this Socialist Union and TO REFORM IT IF NECESSARY.”

  • That last line from his 1998 book is a very prophetic statement:”There is no doubt that the old world will fall, from America to the Soviet Union. A new order will certainly arise from these new geopolitical interactions, and not by design, political decision, or by threat or force. Everything formal will fall, and its place be taken by everything that is popular….”
  • “We must have economic progress accompanied by spiritual, social & moral progress, otherwise we will be like one who walks on one foot. All the attempts of progress in both the capitalist & communist theories were at the expense of man & his values & even his freedom.” – Muammar Al-Qadhafi

…(5) “The teachings of the Prophet must be applied, and there must be a cultural revolution in the libraries and in the universities with a view to opposing all demagogic thought….”

    • The Leader of the Libyan Al-Fateh Revolution explains why the Russian Revolution was a copy of the French Revolution

      by Muammar al-Qathafi

      The red flag, which was so easily taken down by one soldier from the Kremlin guard – that flag, for whom thousands of martyrs fell, downed by bullets, downed in cold battles with torture, mistreatment and starvation in the darkness of prisons and solitary confinement in all parts of the world – the flag was dyed red with the blood of tens of millions of Russians.

      Under it struggled millions of people from nations that declared themselves communist, so that it would be raised over the entire earth. How did this happen, and is this the end of a series of miraculous events or the beginning? Will we see other historical earthquakes that bring down all truths and assumptions?

      For example, will we see Christianity fall after people come to their senses and realize that they were deceived when it was said to them that Christ crucified himself to forgive the sins of his followers, no matter what they had done. On the basis of this, “Christian” countries have killed millions of the peoples of the world, since they erroneously believed they had received Christ’s forgiveness beforehand (without the understanding that forgiveness rested upon proof and clarity of true repentence and the performance of good deeds).

      Some people in the Christian world might become aware of the fact that Christ’s crucifying himself for their evil sakes is a misconception and historical falsehood. People will become shaken from their perceived–but not true) “Christianity”; and in fact march vandelously toward the churches in order to demolish them, breaking crosses, scraping away the layers of ministers and monks, because of their false conceptions. They will declare that Jesus was nothing more than a prophet of Israel (even though He was Divine), sent to inform Israel to correct the law of Moses, no more, no less…and they will perform destruction because of their misconceptions and lack of understanding.

      Since the Jews rejected any encroachment upon their law, which they had vowed to uphold, they were hostile to Jesus. They cast him out and crucified him, although in fact they had only his likeness. [1]. As, God took him unto Himself, and raised him up to Him.

      Will we see America mediate between the Libyans, with their spiritual relations and moral influence and their Iranian brothers, because the Iranians engage in mediation with their brothers the Germans? After all, they are from the same race, i.e. the Aryan race. So that the Germans, who look upon the poor Americans with sympathy, will forgive them their famous historical sin that they committed against the Germans in World War II? So that America, if the Germans accept its plea for mercy, will be ready to apologize for the landing at Normandy, and Eisenhower’s landing in North Africa, so that the Germans will be able to consider that these events did not happen at all?

      That America was guilty, was wrong, for that historical mistake made by Roosevelt. America might send a delegation of Blacks, or American Indians, since it knows how much the Libyans sympathize with them, during the days of the old imperialist delusion about Libya. To let America play upon and play with the emotions of the Libyans, and help it, it said to the delegation: America would like to request the greatest number possible of Green Books, Qurans, and if possible, in English.

      We see how the Fourth Reich/NWO imposes its conditions on America and Britain – the first condition is destroying their weapons under German supervision. Another is exorbitantly high compensation payments, putting it on the verge of bankruptcy – setting up a German committee in America and another one in Britain in order to permanently supervise the carrying out of these actions.

      We see France enjoying illusory independence under the Fourth Reich/NWO, the French nuclear code is carried in a briefcase to Berlin. Germany rejects mediation, and imposes tyrannical tribute upon America and Britain in compensation for what they did to the German people. National socialism becomes the dominant doctrine from Poland to France.

      We see the Israelis announcing their acceptance of a friendly solution that satisfies the Arabs. The first solution they accept is their distribution throughout the Arab world as protected minorities, putting their expertise at the service of the Arabs, because this will be one million times better than their staying in Palestine, as a Jewish state within sight of the frightening Fourth Reich/NWO.

      Without America, they will ask Libya to carry out its nation-oriented duty and assist in the implementation of this solution, because if Libya accepts it, no one will try to go it one better.

      This will most certainly take place, because the signs are there, and the results are inevitable. American scientists themselves have confirmed that America will experience desertification on the one hand, and global freezing on the other. They confirmed that the fall of the Soviet Union is the reason for the change in these natural phenomena, and nature has begun to have its effects in America as well.

      The ethnic groups that make up America will begin to fight among themselves, like they have done in Lebanon. It was also proven that the conflict of nationalities (a social factor) was another reason for the fall of the Soviet Union. Capital will flee the fourth world, and will certainly leave America. However, we must return to the key to these mysteries – how did the world become entangled in Marxism/Leninism?

      Marx summarized human history as follows: primitive communism was the beginning, and this is correct. Men then became divided into groups, and more groups. Each group created social partners, with cooperative ownership of land and everything else, including marriage, which made various human races, and this is also historically correct.

      Then, individual ownership became established, and the superior ones constituted forms of private property, making slaves of the weak, backward, and unlucky. A slave society was then created, which was then transformed by their labours into a feudalist society. Cities were then formed, with the bourgeoisie taking the place of the feudalists. Cities then developed into capitalism, and society became divided into workers and bosses. Marx said that it was necessary to incite the workers to the revolution so that they could obtain property.

      Revolution took place in Czarist Russia, and was called the Soviet Union. Stalin said that in order to protect the revolution, apparatuses of oppression were necessary; they were called intelligence, external security, national security, secret police, secret service, security of the revolution, revolutionary courts, etc. Exceptional courts, military courts, political prison… all of this in terms of the security issue.

      On the economic side, he talked of appropriation, nationalization, sequestration, then public ownership and state ownership. And collective ownership. Finally, cooperative ownership. Then Stalin abolished the doctrine of the law of supply and demand. He abolished competition, and fixed pricing and subsidized goods appeared.

      The communist party was institutionalized to lead the socialist state toward communism. A group of giants, from the founder Lenin to the iron Stalin to Khrushchev and Brezhnev, assumed leadership of the party in the Soviet Union. Finally, Gorbachev, who presented the red flag to a soldier for it to be folded, perhaps… perhaps for forever.

      This did not take place in the Soviet Union alone, but spread throughout practically the entire world; even in America and Britain are there communist parties. Communist countries were established in the western hemisphere as well.

      It became the fashion to have revolutions or coups, even if against socialist regimes. But these actions would be marked by an iron-willed party, secret police, political prisoners, exceptional courts, appropriating freedoms, apparatuses of external and internal security, national security… patriotism, nationalism, even America was effected by this. Its Central Intelligence Agency was developed, and deployed outside the country’s borders. It committed acts more atrocious than those of the Soviet external security committee, which later became the KGB.

      Competition reached its summit between the CIA and KGB… coups, assassinations, counterfeiting, money, forging identity documents and passports, buying agents, from the most worthless person to the president of a country. In order to spite Germany, a Jewish state was established in Palestine, despite the dangerous future it held for the Jews themselves, and its effects on world peace.

      After the fall of the Kremlin and the end of the cold war, will all of the related effects also collapse? Will it involve the Jewish state, the party, the political prison, apparatus of suppression, appropriation of property, nationalization, sequestration, CIA, mind-set of national security and external security, etc.?

      There is no doubt that the old world will fall, from America to the Soviet Union. A new order will certainly arise from these new geopolitical interactions, and not by design, political decision, or by threat or force. Everything formal will fall, and its place be taken by everything that is popular.

      But has communism truly died?

      I say that the age of the masses has begun to impose itself, as it begins its rapid march, igniting people’s feelings and captivating their attention. Everything mentioned at the beginning of this introduction will be achieved. We cannot, however, say that communism has died, for it was never born! We should remember what Hitler said in one of his rallies: ‘We must wait for our victory, even if it comes 360 years late.’

      Communism has not yet been born, so that we may say that it has died. It was Marxism Leninism that collapsed; or in fact, Stalinism Leninism, but why did it collapse? One of the tenets of the Islamic revolution in Iran says that it collapsed because of its atheism, and apostasy, and not for political or economic reasons.

      Despite the difficulty in believing this argument because of its metaphysical nature, it is hard to discard this reason arbitrarily. There is no doubt that Gorbachev was one of the greatest enemies of God and advocates of abandoning religion, even though he recognized Him when he gave his farewell address: “God has presented us with many blessings, if we only knew how to use them.”

      Is it not enough that Marxism said that religion was the opiate of the masses, and said that religious or tribal societies cannot progress, that scientific research is not permitted by religion, and thus scientific progress is destined to perish in a religious society? This is natural, since religion is a spiritual, or hidden matter, based on belief in the unseen [2], while science is a tangible, material matter, based on experience.

      Therefore, accommodating the two, spiritual and material, tangible and hidden, belief and experience, is not possible. Even Ibn Sina was judged an unbeliever because he said, “Mountains and valleys were made by natural factors of rising and falling during the earth’s past ages.” Galileo was condemned by the church to be burned because he said, “From the seen, material, realistic point of view, the earth is round.”

      Thus, Marxism settled the issue to the benefit of the freedom of scientific research, without regarding the haram and halal [3] and what lies in between this limit of proscribed and prescribed. For the well person, when he prescribes a medicine for a given disease, does not say that this is medicine but it is forbidden, or could be said to be forbidden from the point of view of a certain religion, not to speak of more than one religion.

      In addition to this, there is also something else we must mention about Marxism. It involved the world in ‘fashionable’ practices and institutions such as physical liquidation of class enemies, political assassination of opponents, political prisons and secret police, special courts (imitating the French Revolution). Perhaps this was one of the reasons for its fall.

      In reality, Marxism is a good student of the bourgeoisie. What was the 1917 Russian Revolution, if not a good student of the 1789 French Revolution? It is incorrect and unfair to ascribe physical liquidation of class enemies to Marxism; the French bourgeois was the inventor of that practice, when it did away with the feudal class. What were Lenin and Stalin other than pupils of Robespierre and Danton? The left was erroneously ascribed to the communist revolution; the left is actually a child of the French.

      The Jacobin extremist revolutionaries were the ones who sat on the left of the French National Assembly Hall by accident one day, and the moderates sat on the right: thus the revolutionaries were called the left, and the moderates the right. Thus, the words ‘left’ and ‘right’ come of the dictionary of the French revolution, and not the Russian.

      As for assassinating opponents, Stalin did not invent this when he had Trotsky assassinated; this was a Roman practice. The assassination of Julius Caesar proves this. The political prison was created by the feudalists; history records the story of Dr. Manet, who forgot his name upon leaving prison, which he had entered a physician and exited a carpenter.

      Feudalists, before the bourgeoisie, created the secret police; the French revolutionaries, before the precision of the feudalist regime’s secret police, were forced to write their lists by using embroidery on fabric, in fear of being caught.

      Special, exceptional and revolutionary courts were also the creation of the French Revolution and began with the trial and execution of King Louis the XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette; they were revolutionary at first, then lasted throughout the Terror that was led by the Jacobins.

      That cat that devoured its children was not the Bolshevik Revolution; this saying accompanied the French Revolution, which ended with the execution of its leaders Robespierre, Danton and Saint Just.

      The invention of external and national security and the creation of an official security apparatus were not the province of the Soviet Revolution at all; on the contrary, the Soviet Revolution isolated itself from the world, and created an iron curtain hiding itself, or hiding the world from itself.

      These things were the creation of the American Revolution. American intelligence still practices this specialty today, in the name of protecting the national and external security of the United States of America. The demagogic rush toward the opponent was the basis of the French Revolution, when it began to march on the feudalists’ palaces. The colour red is not the colour of the Bolshevik Revolution, but was first the colour of the French Revolution, before being followed by the Russian.

      French history notes that when Marquez passed through one of the streets of Paris on a cart filled with glass barrels filled with wine, and one of them fell and broke on the pavement, the poor flocked around and began to lap up the drink with pieces of fabric. A revolutionary dipped his finger in the red wine and wrote ‘blood’ on a nearby wall, and everyone then knew what that meant.

      The abolition of religion was not part of the Russian Revolution’s philosophy, but of the French Revolution. It officially abolished Christianity, replacing it with worship of the republic and the souls of the martyrs for freedom. The Russian Revolution also abolished religion, imitating the French. Thus the Russian Revolution is merely a pupil of the French Revolution in all things, its complete copy. It imitated it in detail; the Russian Revolution brought nothing new with it in the way of these tragedies, or benefits.

      So, what remained of the Russian Revolution, if the left was imported from the French, as well as revolutionary courts, political prison, solitary confinement, physical liquidation, liquidation of a class, popular army, ideological army – the army formed by the French Revolution to combat royalist Europe – even the colour red is also imported from the French Revolution.

      What, then, is the communist revolution which we say has fallen? What is the Marxist-Leninist regime that has failed? What ideology has ended? What was the Soviet Union itself that collapsed?

      What was the dangerous secret behind this frightening collapse? In reality, the Russian Revolution was nothing but imitation and importation, it was dazzled by the French Revolution, so the revolutionaries of Czarist Russia tried to apply the same in their country. Marxism-Leninism is a nationalist falsehood propagated so that it could not be said that Russia was the pupil of France.

      There was no Marxism-Leninism, but Robespierrism-Dantonism Rousseauism. It was not a proletarian revolutionarism; this is another historical falsehood. It was a bourgeois revolution against the feudalist class, exactly like the French Revolution against feudalism.

      Czarist Russia was a feudalist empire in the true sense of the word. The October Revolution removed that royal feudalism and transformed it into a bourgeois republic, under whose banner was of course collected everything not feudalist, even the poor to the sons of the middle class.

      Exactly in the same way that the French Revolution transformed France from a feudalist monarchy to a bourgeois republic with no ideology, merely a revolution of the poorest classes against the feudal class, there was no communist revolution so that we may say that a communist revolution has failed.

      Communism has not arrived yet. And may never come, since it is an imaginary, utopian idea, which has as a condition the existence of a communist man, and this is an impossibility.

      The Soviet Union which collapsed is a nationalist struggle which is not foreign to history, but is rather the strongest engine of history, and a former of the map of the world. Whether the Soviet Union was Marxist, capitalist, or anything else, the nationalist struggle that arose was inevitable. It is an inevitable struggle in any country made up of a number of nationalities, such as India, America and [former] Yugoslavia.

      As for those who ruled in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, they were bourgeois parties that turned into, with the passing of time, an aristocratic class. What happened is not strange: it was a very natural thing, although the greater part of them know it not [4].

      Therefore, which of the remaining disasters can be attributed to Marxism, so that we may say they were responsible for its collapse? There is only one remaining misfortune in this list of social and political disasters that can truly be ascribed to the Marxist revolution, and this is the economic issue.

      Everything connected to property, its acquisition, its appropriation, sequestration, pricing, subsidizing primary goods, abolishing the law of supply and demand – this is all the result of the Bolshevik Revolution.

      So, was this the secret of its fall? Perhaps! Now, following the abolition of so-called “socialism”, the prices of primary goods have doubled many times over in the Russian republic and the Ukraine, in the countries of Eastern Europe. Columns of beggars have appeared: the achievement of following market policies.

      From the sermon as Imam at the Tripoli mosque 06 Nov. 1972:

      “By the Grace of God we have left communism far behind us. We are much more progressive than communism, which in our opinion has transformed into a reactionary system. The works of Lenin,Marx and Engels are meaningless now; history has passed them by. Their authors built up their theories in the 19th century. They could not possibly have foreseen, then, how the world would look in the year 2000. To adopt their theories, would be to return to the ideas quite unconnected with present day realities….”

      Muammar writes: “Thank goodness we left Communism long behind us” …

      In an address given while Muammar presented himself as IMAM at the beautiful Tripoli mosque that you see in many pictures of the Tripoli Port, on 10 December 1971, Muammar again reiterated that what he and the Libyan Fetah revoutionaries were expounding was NOT COMMUNISM and was a fulfillment of prophecy. Muammar said the following:”The cultural revolution has certainly not come to us from China. It has been forshaddowed in Islam for centuries. WE MUST EMBARK UPON A SPIRITUAL and cultural revolution, a revolution in which, operating INWARDLY, will enable each one of us to follow the PATH OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, This is the true meaning of that verse in the Quaran wnich says:’Allah does not change a people’s lot unless they change what is in their hearts.’ ”

      This is known as Muammar’s “ZUWARA SPEECH”… The Communists, especially in the Soviet Union at that time HATED this speech of Muammar’s, and openly spoke-up against Muammar AT THAT TIME.

      Mirella Bianco asked Muammar in 1974, “Why this reform of the country’s whole way of life and its higher political institutions (into People’s Congresses and People’s Committees) would be interpreted wrongly by the whole rest of the world, Muammar answerd Mirella with conviction:”A foreign importation? I do not agree THAT THERE HAS BEEN ANYTHING IMPORTED IN THIS AFFAIR, still less that ANY importation was needed. After all, we do not have to invent new words everytime we undertake something new! When one speaks of ‘revolution’, for example, it is a term in every country. It is the same with the word ‘death’, whether one is in the East or in the West. And ‘confusion’ means confusion all over the world. So much for terminology! But concerning content, the present events in Libya go much further than the Chinese cultural revolution, which incidentally was also, much more a popular than a cultural revolution, This (part) is exactly what is happening here: a popular revolution which cuts a way through adminitrative red-tape and self-interested groups….From this point of view, the expression ‘cultural revolution’ is a name adopted merely for ease of usage. Unfortunately (probably) the choice will please some Marxists; but that does not alter the fact THAT THERE ARE SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO REVOLUTIONS. First and foremost on the politial level: The Chinese cultural revolution took place to put and end to the influence of the enemies of Maoism. President Mao himself said that there existed in China a bourgeois counter-revolution which the Red Guard would have to root out.WITH US (LIBYANS), ON THE CONTRARY, there was no opposition. Right from the start, we stated that the revolution of 01 September 1969 was only the beginning of a long process set into motion by the armed forces. (they (the armed-forces) could be said to be merely the detonator. THEN THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES WOULD HAVE THE TASK OF CONTINUING, of taking power without any intermediary. And if we did not ask the Arab Socialist Union to undertake this revolution, which is in fact a POPULAR revolution,, it is precisely because, the Arab Socialist Union was constructed by us: That is to say, by the Revolutionary Command Council. It is for the people now to judge the efficiancy of this Socialist Union and TO REFORM IT IF NECESSARY.”

      …. “The teachings of he Prophet must be applied, and there must be a cultural revolution in the libraries and in the universities with a view to opposing all demagogic thought….”

    • “We must have economic progress accompanied by spiritual, social & moral progress, otherwise we will be like one who walks on one foot. All the attempts of progress in both the capitalist & communist theories were at the expense of man & his values & even his freedom.” – Muammar Al-Qadhafi 
    •  Gaddafi, Are you an Anti-Communist?

      Gaddafi, Are you an Anti-Communist? Kadafi Anticomunista Kadhafi Anti-comunista
    • Mikro Fon  erroneously writes:”Muammar never studied the communist ideology. He never studied marxism-leninism, That’s why he had many illusions about the imperialist system and that’s why, he was overthrown by the imperialist enemies. The marxism-leninism is a science,

      a social science. And, by the way, Muammar sometimes changed his views during his live…. He was learning and studying. And I think, now, in this time, he has to learn (or already has learned) that there cannot be “dealed” with imperialism, but fighting it…”

    • MY REPLY: You call yourself “Athieist”…That is why you say this…But if you understood that all things were created by God, who is beyond all created things, and gave all things life—and learned to love and appreciate him–This thing of Communism would never want o take-over your mind.You must learn to know God (who made all things possible, finite and infinite, and still loves you) first before you can perceive all these things.do not make Muammar “dumb”–He was a history major in his University education…He knew very well what it is and was and lived through all the Communist regimes…It is you Mikro who have been blinded to the Evils of Communisn, which is just as bad as capitalism. Only the THIRD UNIVERSAL THEORY can save our ailing planet—and the system DID NOT FAIL—Only NATOs bombs were able to temporarily put the JAMAHIRIYA down–but the power of the people can never be taken away except by consent of the people themselves, Therefore it really still exists and very shortly the people will take back what was taken from them by bombs and military force.

      Study the Green Book, and the Great Universal Green Charter of Human Rights


      Inspired by the first Declaration of the Great Revolution of Al Fateh (1 September 1969), which was the definitive triumph of liberty on this Earth;

      Directed by the principles of the historical Declaration of the Establishment of the Power of the People of 2 March 1977, an event which opened a new era crowning the uninterrupted struggle of humanity, throughout the centuries, and confirming its unceasing aspiration to liberty and emancipation;

      Led by the Green Book, guide of humanity for the total deliverance from any power of individuals, of classes, of clans, of tribes or parties, and the path towards establishment of a society for all, where all human beings would be free and equal in the exercise of power and in the possession of wealth and arms;

      In response to the constant encouragement of the internationalist leader, Mu`ammar al-Qathafi, founder of the Jamahiriyan era who by his thought and his labour makes concrete the aspirations of the oppressed and the enslaved in the world, and who opens before peoples the path of change by popular revolution, an essential instrument to establish the Jamahiriyan society;

      Convinced that the Rights of Man, suppliant of God on earth, cannot be the gift of a person nor exist in societies where exploitation and tyranny are practised, and can only be achieved by the victory of the popular masses over the oppressors and the disappearance of regimes which destroy liberty, that the establishment of the power of the popular masses will consolidate their existence on earth, when the sovereignty of the people will be exercised through the Popular Congresses, that human rights cannot be guaranteed in a world where there exist governors and governed, masters and slaves, rich and poor;

      Aware that human misery can disappear, and the rights of man be affirmed, only by the edification of a Jamahiriyan world where the people hold the power, the wealth and the arms; a world where governments and armies will disappear, and where communities, peoples and nations will get rid of any danger of war, a world of peace, respect, agreement and cooperation;

      On the basis of the above and the decisions of the national and international Popular Congresses, held in the country and outside, the Libyan Arab people, guided by the famous slogan of Omar Ibn Al Khattab: “Since when can we enslave men when their mothers brought them into the world free?”, words which were the first declaration of liberty and the Rights of man in the history of humanity;

      Decide to promulgate the Great Green Charter of Human Rights of the Jamahiriyan Era, the principles of which are as follows:

      1. Democracy is the power of the people and not the expression of the people. The members of the Jamahiriyan society declare that power belongs to the people. They exercise it directly, without intermediary or representatives in the popular congresses and the popular committees.

      2. The members of the Jamahiriyan society consider the life of the individual sacred and protect it. They forbid its alienation. Imprisonment can only be exercised against those for whom liberty constitutes a danger or a contamination of others. The aim of punishment is to renew society, to protect its human values and its interests. The Jamahiriyan society proscribes punishments which attack the dignity and the integrity of the human being, such as forced labour or long-term imprisonment. The Jamahiriyan society proscribes all attacks, physical or mental, on the person of the prisoner. It condemns all speculations and experiments of any kind of which he could be the subject. The punishment is personal and suffered by the individual following a criminal act on which it must depend. The punishment and its consequences cannot extend to the family nor the persons close to the criminal. “One only commits evil to one’s own detriment and nobody will assume what he has not committed”.

      3. The members of the Jamahiriyan society are, in times of peace, free in all their movements and in the choice of their residence.

      4. Citizenship in the Jamahiriyan society is a sacred right. Nobody can be deprived of it or have it removed.

      5. The members of the Jamahiriyan society forbid clandestine action and recourse to force in all its forms, violence, terrorism and sabotage. These acts constitute a betrayal of the values and principles of the Jamahiriyan society, which affirms the sovereignty of the individual in the Basic Popular Congresses, guaranteeing him the right to express his opinion publicly. They reject and condemn violence as a means of imposing ideas and opinions. They adopt democratic dialogue as the only method of debate and consider any hostile relation towards the Jamahiriyan society linked to a foreign instance, whatever its form, as high treason against it.

      6. The members of the Jamahiriyan society are free to form unions, trade unions and leagues to defend their professional interests.

      7. The members of the Jamahiriyan society are free in their private acts and their personal relations. Nobody can involve themselves therein, except at a complaint from one of the partners concerned or if the act and the relation attack or are prejudicial to society, or if they are contrary to its values.

      8. The members of the Jamahiriyan society consider the life of the human being to be sacred and protect it. The objective of the Jamahiriyan society is to abolish capital punishment. To this end, the death penalty can only be exercised against an individual whose existence constitutes a danger or is deleterious to society. The person condemned to death may request that his sentence be lightened or, instead of his life, offer a personal tribute. The court may commute the penalty if this decision is not prejudicial to society or if it is not contrary to human values. The members of the Jamahiriyan society condemn the application of the execution of capital punishment by repugnant methods, such as the electric chair, the use of toxic gas or injections.

      9. The Jamahiriyan society guarantees the right to plead and the independence of the judicial system. Each of its members is entitled to a fair and complete trial.

      10. The judgements of the members of the Jamahiriyan society are based on sacred law, religion or custom, the terms of which are stable, unchangeable and for which there can be no substitute. They declare that religion is an absolute belief in the divinity and a sacred spiritual value. It is personal to each person and common to everyone. It is a direct relationship with the Creator, without intermediary. The Jamahiriyan society proscribes its monopoly and its exploitation for purposes of subversion, fanaticism, sectarianism, partisan in spirit and fratricidal war.

      11. The Jamahiriyan society guarantees the right to work. It is a right and a duty for everyone, in the limits of one’s personal effort or in association with others. Everybody has the right to exercise the work of their choice. The Jamahiriyan society is one of partners and not one of paid employees. Ownership, the fruit of labour, is sacred and protected, it can only be attacked in the public interest and with fair compensation. The Jamahiriyan society is free from the slavery of salaries, stating the right of everybody over their labour and protection. Only those who produce consume.

      12. The members of the Jamahiriyan society are liberated from any feudalism. The land is nobody’s property. Each person has the right to exploit it and to benefit from it by labour, agriculture or animal-keeping, throughout his life, that of his heirs, and within the limits of his effort and the satisfaction of his needs.

      13. The members of the Jamahiriyan society are free from any rent. A house belongs to the person who lives in it. It enjoys a sacred immunity in respect of rights of neighbourhood: “Your close neighbours or distant neighbours”. The residence cannot be used to harm society.

      14. The Jamahiriyan society is united. It guarantees everyone a worthy and prosperous life and a developed state of health, so as to achieve a society of healthy people. It guarantees protection of childhood, motherhood old age and of invalids. The Jamahiriyan society is the guardian of all those who do not have a guardian.

      15. Education and knowledge are natural rights for everyone. Any individual has the right to choose his education and the knowledge which suits him, without imposed constraint or orientation.

      16. The Jamahiriyan society is the society of goodness and of noble values. It considers ideals and human principles sacred. Its aim is a humanitarian society where aggression, war, exploitation and terrorism will be banished and where there will be no difference between great and small. All nations, all peoples, and all national communities have the right to live free, according to their options and the principles of self-determination. They have the right to establish their national entity. Minorities have the right to safeguard their entity and their heritage. The legitimate aspirations of the latter cannot be repressed. Neither can they be assimilated by force into one or several different nations or national communities.

      17. The members of the Jamahiriyan society affirm the right of each person to profit from the benefits, the advantages, the values and the principles which are obtained for him by agreement, cohesion, union, affinity and the affection of the family, the tribe, the nation and humanity. To this end, they work to establish the natural national entity of their nation and support all those who fight to achieve this aim. The members of the Jamahiriyan society reject any segregation between men due to their colour, their race, their religion or their culture.

      18. The members of the Jamahiriyan society protect liberty. They defend it everywhere in the world. They support the oppressed, and encourage all peoples to confront injustice, oppression, exploitation and colonialism. They encourage them to combat imperialism, racism and fascism, in accordance with the principle of the collective struggle of peoples against the enemies of liberty.

      19. The Jamahiriyan society is a society of splendour and fulfilment. It guarantees each person the right of thought, creation and innovation. The Jamahiriyan society works for the development of the sciences, the arts and literature. It guarantees they will be disseminated among the popular masses so as to prohibit any monopoly on them.

      20. The members of the Jamahiriyan society affirm the sacred right for men to be born into a coherent family, where motherhood, fatherhood and brotherhood are given to him. Fulfilment of the human being is only in compliance with his nature if it is assured by natural motherhood and feeding. The child must be brought up by its mother.

      21. The members of the Jamahiriyan society, men or women, are equal in everything which is human. The distinction of rights between men and women is a flagrant injustice which nothing justifies. They proclaim that marriage is a fair association between two equal partners. Nobody can conclude a marriage contract by constraint, nor divorce in any other way than by mutual consent or by a fair judgement. It is unfair to dispossess the children of their mother, and the mother of her home.

      22. The members of the Jamahiriyan society considers servants as the slaves of modern times, enslaved by their masters. No law governs their situation, and they have no guarantee nor protection. They live under the arbitrary nature of their masters, and are victims of tyranny. They are forced, by necessity and in order to survive, to carry out work which ridicules their dignity and human feelings. For this reason, the Jamahiriyan society proscribes recourse to servants in the home. The house must be maintained by its owners.

      23. The members of the Jamahiriyan society are convinced that peace between nations can guarantee them prosperity, abundance and harmony. They call for an end to the trade of arms and their manufacture for purposes of exploitation. The arms industry constitutes a waste of wealth of societies, a burden on individual taxpayers, causing the spread of destruction and annihilation in the world.

      24. The members of the Jamahiriyan society call for the suppression of nuclear, bacteriological and chemical weapons and any other means of massive extermination and destruction. They call for elimination of all the existing stocks, for the preservation of humanity from the dangers represented by the waste from nuclear power stations.

      25. The members of the Jamahiriyan society undertake to protect their society and political system based on popular power. They also undertake to safeguard its values, principles and interests. They regard collective defence as the only means to preserve them. They think that the defence of the Jamahiriyan society is the responsibility of every citizen, man or woman. Nobody can have a substitute when confronted with death.

      26. The members of the Jamahiriyan society commit themselves to the bases of this charter. They do not allow them to be infringed and forbid themselves any act contrary to the principles and rights that it guarantees. Each person has the right to plead under the law for the purpose of reparation of any attacks on the rights and liberties that it announces.

      27. The members of the Jamahiriyan Society offer the world, and with pride, the Green Book, the guide and path of emancipation for the acquisition of liberty. They announce to the popular masses the advent of a new age, when corrupt regimes will be abolished and from which any trace of tyranny and exploitation will be extirpated.

      The General Congress of the People of the Popular and Socialist Libyan Arab JamahiriyaBaida, 28 Ghawal 1397 from the death of the Prophet, 12 Assayf/June 1988


      Libya – Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People

      { Adopted on: 02 March 1977 }{ ICL Document Status: 2 March 1977 }

      Excert From “September One: A Story of Revolution” by Frederick Muscat

      The People’s Power

      Indeed, on March 2, 1977 corresponding to the 12th day of Rabi Al Awal of 1397 of the Hegira, according to the Muslim calendar, the Declaration of the Establishment of the People’s Powertook place in Kahira, city of Sebha. This was the beginning of a new stage in the historical period following the 01 September 1969 al-Fetah Revolution.

      The study of the “Declaration of Sebha” precedes, for methodological reasons, that of the spiritual and political bases of the Leader of the Revolution and also the principles and projection of the “Third Universal Theory” and the proposal formulated in the three parts of the Green Book.

      The meeting of the General People’s Congress began on 25 February  and ended on 02 March 1977. On that day, according to Muammar himself, the political, economic and social principles of the new Jamahiriya were established.

      “What will the Libyan people announce to the other nations of the world?” asked the Leader to the numerous delegates meeting at the extraordinary session of the General Congress, “the setting up of the people’s power, the advent of the age of the masses, the application of the Third World Theory, the success of the Third Way from its starting point, surpassing all democratic experiences following schemes which have failed, and the end of dictatorial regimes.

      “With the setting up of the people’s authority, a popular Jamahiriya will be created. With the setting up of socialism, the Jamahiriya will be called ‘socialist’. It will also be a Libyan, Arab, Islamic and African Jamahiriya, consequently, we can discuss its denomination which will have great importance. We cannot decide lightly, as certain new regimes have done, where the name has nothing to do with the nature of the regime.”

      Muammar also stated: “We still cannot say it (the Jamahiriya) is ‘popular’ or ‘socialist’, since we have not achieved yet a state of popular and socialist government, but we can assign it new adjectives: if the authority of the people prevails, then it will be a Popular Jamahiriya, and if socialism is introduced, it will also be Socialist, but a socialism different from that of the East or West.”

      Drawing out expressions from the Green Book and numerous speeches, Muammar continued by saying:

      The law of society has been approved. It is the Koran.

      Together with the denomination of the Republic which will appear in the newDeclaration, we will also set the law of society. If you accept the Koran as you have done before, then you must discuss the consequences. In this way you will no longer be governed by a Constitutional Declaration. We shall say no more: ‘According to the Constitutional Declaration…’We will no longer have a Constitution. But if we incorporate the new law to the Declaration of the people’s power, the new law will never change. We must know the value of such historical things which will be included in this Declaration”.

      Muammar is no doubt as cultivated as he is intelligent. If a great number of his works are criticised by some analysts who accuse him of being too simple, it is precisely because he must address his people in a language easy to understand. We must bear in mind that in spite of the intense literacy campaign launched by the Government, the large majority of the people sunk in the shadows of colonialism until 1969, is not capable yet of assimilating very complicated speeches, excluding the fact that a high percentage of the population still leads a nomad’s life.

      All those of us who attended several international events held in the Jamahiriya, were able to ascertain how informed the Revolutionary Leader is on various sciences, a knowledge acquired after years of intense study of the Islamic, Catholic and compared theologies; of politics, philosophy, history, of the various literary and artistic manifestations and also of military strategy.

      Muammar has the habit of explaining his views even for hours without the help of an aide memoire. Most of his speeches are heard throughout Libya with the respect and admiration with which students listen, to the oldest and most experienced professors.

      No wonder the people call him, besides Leader, the ‘Master-Conductor’.

      During the decisive meetings of the General People’s Congress which proclaimed the setting up of the Jamahiriya, he clearly explained the meaning of the proposals delegates were to discuss.

      With regard to the procedures for the setting up of the People’s Authority, to its principles and to the way of exercising that power, Muammar said:

      “The people will exercise power through the popular congresses, the popular committees and the professional trade unions and finally through the General People’s Congress.

        Everything has been provided for in the Declaration and you will discuss it.”

      Then he said that nobody could speak to him, after the final decision had been reached, about the Revolutionary Command Council or about Muammar Qadhafi. Besides, he added:

      “That would be contradictory… because the setting up of the people’s authority means that it is the people who govern. I will no longer govern, nor the Council nor anybody else. No such thing as leaders for the people – it is the people who are the leaders! No such thing as a government for Libya – the government is the people!

      The reader who knows about political sciences might argue that this type of definition cannot go beyond simple theory, since such definitions must be impracticable in accordance with known historical experience.

      However, as Aristotle once said: “Something new can always be expected from Libya”. But to clarify this point, a new chapter is called for.

      Muammar went on saying:

      “When we speak of popular authority, we may no longer speak of a Council. Those are two contradictory things.

      “Other contradictions: authority of the people and president, authority of the people and the prevalence of the struggle of classes, religions, tribes, families or parliaments.”

      Muammar also urged the setting up of the people’s authority and the adoption of the corresponding rules to solve the “problem of democracy”, otherwise the question would remain unsolved and exposed to any sort of dictatorship existing in the world where

      “a party imposes itself over the people and governs on its behalf”, or else “small groups agree to dominate it”.

      “The same thing applies for a tribe, a class, a religion, a family, an individual, an army, a band, a king, an emperor… all possible instruments of dictatorship in which the world continues to suffer”.

      “Everything will end with the advent of popular power. Only the Koran and the laws passed by the people will remain. There will be no more statutes for the Arab Socialist Union, nor Constitution, nor parliament.”

      “Once popular power has been set up, you will have rendered a great service to Humanity: the creation of a healthy society without political diseases or any other source of conflict.”

      “That is the reason for political parties, coups d’etats, revolutions, religions or civil wars; every day there is a struggle for power. The reason is that power is in the hands of a fraction of society, while the remaining fractions fight to seize that power or divide it”.

      “The people’s authority ends with that sort of struggles.”

      While the international press criticised Muammar acidly, a significant chapter in present political history was being written in Sebha. A charismatic leader, with “Public Power” in his hands, supported on the enormous operative capacity of loyal Armed Forces, owner of the economic resources of one of the richest countries of the world, having all the possibilities at hand to set up a veiled dictatorial system following any of the classical models in fashion, has been capable, in this agitated XXth century, to transfer to the Libyan people the responsibilities which, no doubt, make the people for the first time a genuine protagonist of great decisions.

      Only by knowing Libya from within, speaking freely and without protocol or any sort of “agreements”, it is possible to understand the reality of this flourishing Arab country and the high degree of decision achieved by the People through the highest body of the “Jamahiriya, though of course, the great guidelines of government action have been inspired by the young Leader and ‘Master-conductor’.

      The Declaration of Sebha is considered the base for the setting up of popular power in Libya, which became the first country in the world to put into practice such a political system.

      The question of opposition to Muammar in many countries where accusations have been lodged without real foundation, are originated in the fact that this political system unveils the true nature of existing “democracies”, both in the countries of the capitalist block as well as in the communist block, also involving of course various regimes within the so-called “Third World”.

      Then, when the final document was approved unanimously by the delegates at the General People’s Congress, Muammar addressed a vibrant message to the country.

      The Leader said:

      “Brothers, In the desert, associated with drought and sterility, a Revolution was born. People have quickly forgotten past events which occurred in Sebha at the end of the 50′s and which were the prelude to a great hope. Further, they forgot the first call, the first communique of the Revolution made in Benghazi at the end of the 60′s, that communique which has shaken Libya, pulling down the idols. They carried on with their daily life, thinking perhaps that this was just another coup like many others. That event has ended with an old fashioned monarchy to set up a progressive Jamahiriya and has put an end to the presence of foreign troops in our territory.

      “Some years have passed since the historical speech in Zuara. That was the anniversary of the birth of the Prophet.” A speech which shook spirits, and consciences! “If that has shaken you, it is to guide you better through a joint action, new and out of the ordinary.

      “Today, on the Prophet’s anniversary, the idea of the Revolution has sprung; in Sebha, in the middle of the desert, where the Declaration of the people’s power is proclaimed and with it, the establishment of the Jamahiriya.

      “A new age is born to Humanity in the Desert; the age of the masses… The desert is neither sterile nor arid. In the desert today, in this last part of the twentieth century, our people ends with the age of traditional republics, in the same way that the French nation announced in the eighteenth century the end of the monarchy and the advent of the age of the republics.

      “Though the desert prevents grass from growing, it produces values and originates eternal messages to Civilization. Today, in the corner of this vast desert land of the Arabs, of the Berbers, of the Tuaregs and the Tobus, the milestone of the age of the Jamahiriyas, the age of the masses is born.”

      Not one place in Libya was left without Muammar’s clarifying words, from the coastal region bathed by the Mediterranean to the deep desert, and from the agitated cities to the remote oases full of picturesque palm trees, where caravans necessarily stopped anxious for a resting place.

      On 02 March 1977 , to close the long and tiring sessions of the General People’s Congress, the“Declaration of Sebha” was read, which from that moment became the cornerstone of political and institutional life of the Socialist People’s Libya

      n Arab Jamahiriya.
      The following is the text of the “Declaration of the Establishment of the People’s Power”:
      “In the name of the most gracious and merciful God.”
      “The Libyan Arab people meeting at the General Assembly of popular congresses, popular committees, trade unions and professional associations (General People’s Congress), by virtue of the Revolution’s first communique and the historical speech of Zuara and guided by the principles set up in the Green Book; considering the recommendations of the popular congresses and the Constitutional Declaration of the 2nd day of Shawal of 1389 of the Hegira (December 11, 1969); the resolutions and recommendations of the General People’s Congress from its first session from the 4th to the 17th day of the Muharram of 1396 of the Hegira (January 5 to 18, 1976) and its second session of the 21st of Zul Kidah to the 2nd of Zul Hijjah of 1396 of the Hegira (from November 13 to 24, 1976).
      “Believing in what was advocated by the September 1st Revolution (Al-Fateh) conducted by the revolutionary thinker and Leader Colonel Muammar Al-Qadhafi at the head of the movement of free unionist officers to end the struggle of the fathers and forefathers in order to establish a direct democratic regime where he sees the effective and final solution to the democratic problem.
      “This people, assuming popular authority on the land of “Al-Fateh” in accordance with the power of the people which is not under the authority of one single person, declares its adherence to freedom, its desire to defend it within its territory and elsewhere in the world, as well as to protect the oppressed in the cause of liberty; declares its adherence to socialism in order to achieve the property of the people: it declares its commitment to achieve general Arab Union; it declares its identification with the moral values which guarantee moral and social human behaviour; it confirms the development of the Revolution, guided by the revolutionary thinker and Leader, Colonel Muammar Al-Qadhafi towards complete popular power; it confirms the consolidation of popular society, free society holding the power, wealth and the arms; it puts an end to all traditional instruments of judgement of the individual, the family the tribe, religion, class, parliament, one or several parties, and declares it is ready to crush any attempt contrary to the people’s power.”

      (3) People’s Congresses:
      The Libyan People is divided into basic People’s Congresses.
      All citizens register themselves as members of the Basic People’s Congress in their area.
      Every basic People’s Congress chooses among its members a comm

      ittee to lead the Congress.
      (4) The masses of the People’s Congresses choose People’s Committees to administer all the services. These Committees are responsible to the People’s Congresses.(5) Members of each profession form their own union to defend their professional rights.
      <photo id=”6″ />
      [ “The teachings of the Prophet must be applied, and there must be a cultural revolution in the libraries and in the universities with a view to opposing all demagogic thought….”]
      (6) The General People’s Congress is the national conference of the People’s Committees and Professional Unions. The General People’s Congressshall have a General Secretariat to execute the general policy of the State as defined by the People’s Congresses. The General Secretariat prepares the sessions of the General People’s Congress and draws up an agenda of the General People’s Congress, executing its resolutions and recommendations. The General Secretariat consists of a Secretary General and a number of secretaries; each shall supervise one of the sectors of activities in the State.
      Article 4 [Chairman]
      The General People’s Congress chooses a chairman to preside over its sessions, to sign the laws by order of the Congress, and to accept the credentials of the representatives of foreign countries.
      Article 5 [Absence]
      In the case of absence of the Chairman of the General People’s Congress or if something hinders him from performing his duties, the Secretary General will temporarily replace him.
      Article 6 [Election]
      (1) The General People’s Congress chooses the Secretary General and the Secretaries, dismisses them, and accepts their resignations.
      (2) The Secretary General and the Secretaries are jointly responsible to the General People’s Congress while every secretary is responsible for the sector he supervises.
      Article 7 [Budget]
      The General Budget of the State is issued by a law and the General People’s Congress endorses the balance sheet of the State.
      Article 8 [Departments, Employees]
      A Law regulates the establishment of public departments and appointments and dismissals of Government employees.
      Article 9 [Defence]
      Defending the Country is the responsibility of every citizen. Through general military training, the People shall be trained and armed. Law regulates the method for preparing military cadres and the general military training.
      Article 10 [Terms]
      The terms ‘Council of Minister’, ‘Prime Minister’, and ‘Minister’ are to be replaced, wherever mentioned, by the terms ‘General Secretariat of the General People’s Congress’, ‘Secretary General’, and ‘The Secretary’.The General People’s Congress (Mu’tammar al-sha’ab al’âmm) (Arabic: مؤتمر الشعب العام الليبي) consists out of circa 2700representatives of the Basis People’s Congresses.The GPC is the legislative forum that interacts with the General People’s Committee, whose members are secretaries of Libyan ministries. It is composed of the secretariats of some 600 local “basic popular Congresses.”The GPC secretariat and the cabinet secretaries are appointed by the GPC secretary general and confirmed by the annual GPC congress.
      Excerpt From “Al-Qadhafi Operation Jerusalem” by Horacio Calderon:
      The General People’s Congress.
      Kahira, city of Sebha, on the 12th day of Rabi Al-Awal of 1397 of the Hegira, corresponding to the 02nd of March, 1977.”
      The Declaration of Sebha became from then on the corner stone of the Libyan political system based on Muammar’s thinking formulated not only in the Green Book but also in a number of documents which have not been widely spread but which have great significance for their universal validity.
      The last administrative division of Libyan Jamahiriya (2007) defines 22 districts, known in Arabic as shabiyat ( Arabic : شعبية shabiyah,شعبيات shabiyat plural) and sometimes translated as “neighborhoods” or “municipalities”.Subdivisions of Libya have often been redrawn in recent decades. The ebb and flow to shabiyat baladiyat and muhafazat (governorates).Moreover, at a lower level, People’
      s Congresses ( Arabic : مؤتمر شعبي أساسي Mu’tamar sha ʿ bi asāsi) constitute a subdivision defining a cutting base used in the appointment of the people’s spokesmens.

      Direct Democracy of the Holy Great Jamahiriya:

      – Extract from The Green Book :
      Popular Conferences are the only means to achieve popular democracy. Any system of government contrary to this met

      hod, the method of Popular Conferences, is undemocratic. All the prevailing systems of government in the world today will remain undemocratic, unless they adopt this method.
      Popular Conferences are the end of the journey of the masses in quest of democracy. Popular Conferences and People’s Committees are the fruition of the people’s struggle for democracy. Popular Conferences and People’s Committees are not creations of the imagination; they are the product of thought which has absorbed all human experiments to achieve democracy.
      Direct democracy, if put into practice, is indisputably the ideal method of government. Because it is impossible to gather all people, however small the population, in one place so that they can discuss, discern and decide policies, nations departed from direct democracy, which became an utopian idea detached from reality.
      It was replaced by various theories of government, such as representative councils, party-coalitions and plebiscites, all of which isolated the masses and prevented them from managing their political affairs.
      These instruments of government – the individual, the class, the sect, the tribe, the parliament and the party struggling to achieve power have plundered the sovereignty of the masses and monopolized politics and authority for themselves.
      THE GREEN BOOK guides the masses to an unprecedented practical system of direct democracy. No two intelligent people can dispute the fact that direct democracy is the ideal, but until now no practical method for its implementation has been devised.
      The Third Universal Theory, however, now provides us with a practical approach to direct democracy. The problem of democracy in the world will finally be solved.
      All that is left before the masses now is the struggle to eliminate all prevailing forms of dictatorial governments, be they parliament, sect, tribe, class, one-party system, two-party system or multi-party system, which falsely call themselves democracies.
      True democracy has but one method and one theory. The dissimilarity and diversity of the systems claiming to be democratic do, in fact, provide evidence that they are not so.
      Authority of the people has but one face which can only be realized through Popular Conferences and People’s Committees. There can be no democracy without Popular Conferences and Committees everywhere.
      First, the people are divided into Basic Popular Conferences. Each Basic Popular Conference chooses its secretariat. The secretariats of all Popular Conferences together form Non-Basic Popular Conferences. Subsequently, the masses of the Basic Popular Conferences select administrative People’s Committees to replace government administration. All public institutions are run by People’s Committees which will be accountable to the Basic Popular Conferences which dictate the policy and supervise its execution.
      Thus, both the administration and the supervision become the people’s and the outdated definition of democracy – democracy is the supervision of the government by the people – becomes obsolete. It will be replaced by the true definition: Democracy is the supervision of the people by the people.
      All citizens who are members of these Popular Conferences belong, vocationally and functionally, to various sectors and have, therefore, to form themselves into their own professional Popular Conferences in addition to being, by virtue of citizenship, members of the Basic Popular Conferences or People’s Committees.
      Subjects dealt with by the Popular Conferences and People’s Committees will eventually take their final shape in the General People’s Congress, which brings together the Secretariats of the Popular Conferences and People’s Committees.
      Resolutions of the General People’s Congress, which meets annually or periodically, are passed on to the Popular Conferences and People’s Committees, which undertake the execution of those resolutions through the responsible committees, which are, in turn, accountable to the Basic Popular Conferences.
      The General People’s Congress is not a gathering of persons or members such as those of parliaments but, rather, a gathering of the Popular Conferences and People’s Committees. Thus, the problem of the instrument of government is naturally solved, and all dictatorial instruments disappear.
      The people become the instrument of government, and the dilemma of democracy in the world is conclusively solved.
      Direct Democracy of the Holy Jamahiriya
      A form of delagation is needed at Regional and National levels.
      As James Madison, in reflection of Pascal Paoli prior had pointed out, it is impossible to gather an entire adult population (over 18) in one location on a continuous basis to make legislative and administrative decisions, and to formulate foreign and nationaldomestic policies.
      Muammar al-Qathafi finally and totally worked this out:
      Each Basic People’s Congress (BPC) selects a Secretariat, sending him/her to the Munipality Popular Congresses (MPC) and the General People’s Congress (GBC); but there is no delegation of authority. These chosen cannot present their own personal views…
      They ONLY present Decisions and Resolutions already made-up at the previous local levels: Thus they only transmit the wishes of the Popular Congresses.
      The General People’s Congress (GPC), consists of all the social group types of every conception conceivable within the country; and that included Basic Popular Congresses and People’s Committees, Tribes, unions, sydicates and professional organisations. No group can be left-out-of the highest levels of authority within the sovereign state.
      Again, a (multiple) “secretariat” is chosen by the General People’s Congress, by which annually, they (the Secretariat) are subject to reconfirmation. There is a Secretary-General, but he (and the other members of the Secretariat) are not authorised to make any policies. They do not represent anyone; they only execute decisions already formed by the General People’s Congress.
      To make this work, citizens must participate actively in the decision making aparatus of the government.That is why, in AUGUST 1982:
      Muammar al-Qathafi argued that it is imperative, if Muslims are to achieve a just society, with equality among all its members, then they must all participate in this goal. This participation is only possible IF the principle of CONSULTATION (Schura) is followed. This principle is statedin the Quaranic phrase “and their fathers are decided through consultation amongst themselves”.al-Qathafi therein writes:
      “Consultation means all the Muslims; not simply a group of them. There is no other way, then that by which all Muslims can engage in consultation (debate), but through People’s Congresses. For this reason, the first part of THE GREEN BOOK discusses the organisation and operation ofPeople’s Congesses.”The last administrative division of Libya (2007) defines 22 districts, known in Arabic as shabiyat ( Arabic : شعبية shabiyah,شعبيات shabiyat plural) and sometimes translated as “neighborhoods” or “municipalities”. Subdivisions of Libya have often been redrawn in recent decades. The ebb and flow to shabiyat baladiyat and muhafazat .
      Moreover, at a lower level, People’s Congresses ( Arabic : مؤتمر شعبي أساسي Mu’tamar sha ʿ bi asāsi) constitute a subdivision defining a cutting base used in the appointment of the people’s spokesmans.

excerpt from a different speech of MARCH 2005 (addressed to Russian Intellectuals at that time) is likewise extremely relevent:

‘I believe that the solution lies in the Green Book, but the world has yet to understand it, because it has been the subject of a blackout and has been banned in most countries in the world since they know that the Green Book aims to change the world, from a world of injustice and exploitation to a world of direct, popular democracy and popular socialism. Those who hold the reins of power do not want to share it with anyone.

They ban the Green Book because it instigates those who have never had a stake in power and never participated in it. The Green Book instigates ordinary citizens, common people, the man on the street, the poor and all these great masses that are marginalized from power and wealth, and are used as cannon fodder in oppressive, exploitative societies, where they sustain themselves with the leftovers of the rich, and live off the service they provide for the those who control power and wealth. This is an unfair, unacceptable, unjust, dictatorial, exploitative and inhuman situation.

It is intolerable and unbearable for us, the simple people, the masses, the poor people who have a right to the land and a right to life. We, the overwhelming majority, do not accept this strategic, historical marginalization or this abuse.

We do not accept to be in the service of the rich and the exploiters, and protect the society of exploitation as soldiers and policemen guarding the institutions of the rich and ensuring their comfort. We do not accept to be used by the elite that have imposed itself through dictatorship as cannon fodder in wars for the sake of its capitalist, economic, imperialist interests. The simple, poor, common soldier has no interest in fighting a war outside his country. When he comes back after fighting, assuming he does come back, he has gained nothing. Rather, if he comes back, he is missing an arm, a leg, his sight, his hearing or even his mind, and sometimes he loses his life itself…

It is the ideology of oppression and exploitation that is prevailing in the world today, according to which oppressive forces, by using money, win elections and assume power, while a handful of the moneyed elite enlist this political tool in their service, and force the simple and the needy, the overwhelming majority, to suffer, endure hardships and die for their sake.

This handful of politicians and rich people attained this position by the unnatural and illegitimate means of exploitation and the use of money, money which was acquired by sucking the blood of the workers.

A rich man is only rich because there are poor people who serve him out of need, thus he becomes rich, having sucked their blood and exploited their efforts to become rich. These moneyed handfuls are to be found in every country in the world, and are the cause of the tragedy of mankind now, and of wars, terrorism, actions and reaction.

It is they who are the source of power, because a poor man cannot become president except with the backing of the rich, so that every power now is the power of money. There is no democracy at present, but there is only money which is the source of power. It is illicit money which did not accumulate in the hands of a wealthy handful because it descended on them from heaven, but was the result of exploitation.


This duo of capitalists and oppressive politicians is the cause of the woes and problems plaguing the world. At no time in history and nowhere in the world, have ordinary citizens had the readiness, the desire or the need to go to faraway places to destroy then and colonize them, but those who have financial interests are the ones who want to seize the wealth of others and the power, which is their handiwork, force those simple people out of their homes and send then faraway to enter other homes with which they have no enmity to plunder and destroy them and kill their inhabitants as has happened in every stage of colonialism experienced by mankind.

Unfortunately, we had thought that colonialism had come to an end, only to find out that it was renewing itself in a brutal manner. However, it is both positive and tragic that it is now certainly difficult to colonize the land of others, settle in it and seize its resources, because it is clearly possible now for the colonized to resist and to have access to very effective means of resistance.

The ordinary citizen is capable of packing his car with explosives and blowing it up and blowing himself up.The possibilities are now widely available thanks to the information revolution and the spread of science and knowledge, thus arms smuggling and arms trafficking are no longer under control. In the past colonialism succeeded, because it was not possible for peoples to resist fiercely as is the case now.

Back then, arms were limited and factories were owned by the invader or the colonizer, while the others were unarmed thus making them vulnerable and exposing their land to invasion, destruction and seizure. It was not. It was not possible then for the peoples to make weapons or explosives, because all these things were unknown to them.
Now, some arrogant powers do not take this transformation into account, and believe that colonialism can be affected easily as it was in the past, but colonialism now, unlike the past, is a difficult enterprise; it is short lived and cannot take root in the land of others, because those others are now capable of manufacturing weapons and explosives. Manufacturing these has become universally accessible, thanks to the internet which provides access to the state of the art sciences.

Colonialism is still practiced, but, this time, in the face of fierce Resistance that was possible in the past. Such a development is, of course, tragic, as one person can blow himself up and kill scores pf people. From a humanitarian point of view, we say this is tragic, because large numbers of people are killed using modern means, but this same colonialism possesses lethal means, including nuclear bombs, and the means of destruction are now unfortunately, available for both sides.

However, the positive aspect is that it makes it difficult for the imperialists and the colonialists to seize the land of others and settle therein, but achieving this result involves great sacrifices and major losses for both sides.

The world in now in the grip of a crisis; there are demonstrations, protests, unemployment and inflation everywhere, and grievances, discontent, arrests, rebellion revolt and victims. There is virtually a world war, and no peace, stability, safety, peace of mind, or hope in the social, economic and political environment prevailing in the world now.

The world is based on the theory of colonizer and colonized, master and slave and rich and poor, and on the theory of wage, hiring, trafficking, representation, marginalization, negation and cynical disregard for the broad masses.
Thus, hundreds of millions are represented by hundreds of individuals, which is regrettable, ridiculous and futile. For instance, we find a country of 300 million people with a parliament of three hundred members, which is laughable, unfortunate and problematic. The three hundred million have realized that the three hundred representatives do not express their desires, share their dreams, or represent them, and, hence, bypassed them and declared that representation is a fraud.

It is fraudulent to bring three hundred people and claim that they are the three hundred million; the three hundred representatives only represent themselves, and cannot dream for the millions or share their desires and their feelings.

Therefore, representation failed and the peoples have gone beyond it, thus, the people and the representatives are not on the same page. There may be a parliament which claims that it was elected, and it is possible that the election, in few cases, was not rigged, but the peoples have given up on parliaments and representatives, and we see them out on the streets expressing their demands directly.

This is proof that the representatives have failed to speak for these peoples. When some governments decided to go to war against Iraq, millions demonstrated against the war. What does this mean? It means that the representatives did not express the demands of these peoples that had elected them, because if they had spoken for the peoples and shared their wishes and dreams, they would have opposed the war.

Therefore, representation is a fraud, which means that scores of peoples are ruled by dictatorial regimes, and are not represented by parliaments, because these parliaments approved the dispatch of forces. How can the parliament approve when the people do not?

Hence, the parliament does not represent the people, representation is a fraud, and mediation, representation and parliaments must be abolished. This farce must be placed in the museum as an ancient relic, because peoples can rule themselves. But how can a people of hundred of millions rule themselves?

We are accustomed to a government consisting of twenty, fifteen or ten ministers who govern, and a parliament consisting of scores of people or hundreds of people sitting in a chamber that accommodates scores of people or hundreds of people who decide for the people .But how can the people rule themselves by themselves?

How can the people, men and women, sit in session and rule themselves by themselves? Naturally, the short –sighted view would say that that is impossible, and settle for representation, with a few people representing millions. This view is erroneous, as it views democracy as a matter of distance and size of chambers, but that is not the way to view it.

Wherever the people are found, whether in the neighborhood or the village, they convene in people’s congresses in which all adults, men and women, participate and decide what they want. Then, if the entire people decided to declare war against a state , then that war would be legitimate, because the people felt that war was inevitable with that neighboring state or a state that is separated from it by an ocean and continents, although that would be highly unlikely.
If a law was passed, it would be passed by the people, the adult men and women sitting in session. Then, if you were sentenced to death under that law, that law would be sacred, because it was passed by all the people, who felt that such a crime should be punishable by death, and you yourself were among those who deliberated and eventually decided that the perpetrator of such a crime deserves the death punishment.


All the criteria and the structures in use now are obsolete; the flow, the demands, the requirements and the challenges of the masses are too great for partisan structures, which are museum pieces. If the dialogue continues with you, Russian friends, members of the Duma, professors, writers and journalists, it will be possible to begin thinking of convincing the people in Russia, for example.

In this regard, would like to answer a question asked by a friend whether it would be possible to establish a Jamahiriya with out violence. We do not need any violence at all; we only need persuasion….’

So, you would willingly submit to the punishment, because you took part in drafting the law, and were convinced of it, because it would not be fair for you to submit to such a punishment under a law passed by others. Those others may be called a parliament, a government, a revolutionary council or what you will. Such a law that you had no hand in, you would not obey, not only in regard to capital punishment but even in paying a fine, imprisonment or arrest…

This defect in the social, economic and political structures in the world today has precipitated the crisis besetting the world at present, and produced the rulers who brag, fabricate and distort the truth to justify their rule and their unjust policies. This policy is of no use to the peoples and the world and cannot solve problems.

When a reaction occurs, the people would say: “This reaction against us was by a person for whom we caused a problem”.

However, the ruler would not only transgress against another, but would not admit his error. Such fraud and deception does not serve the people, peace, mankind or even those who espouse such logic. Since the social, economic and political structures are based on error, so all actions are taken to justify this error, which breeds injustice, exploitation and dictatorship. Peoples do not rule themselves and there are no Jamahiriya and no popular socialism, because all social relations are based on injustice and exploitation.

Peoples are ruled by proxy, and laws are not passed by the people, but by someone else in the name of the people, which is a sham. The wealth of the earth belongs to all the inhabitants of the earth, and the wealth of every country belongs equally to all the people of that country.

But this is not the case, because power and wealth are controlled by a handful which only attained its position by crooked means. Therefore, whatever policies are pursued is only designed to justify this fallacy.

We, the common citizens, hear astounding things from governments and politicians; they tell us that black is white, and white is black. What we see as black they say is white, and we are expected to accept such distortion. This is amazing! The truth is that if you say: “

This is white not black,” then you are a rogue, a deviant and wrong. They tell you, “We said that it is black, and you say that it is white, which means that you disagreed with us, and whoever disagrees with us is a rogue and insane.” This is a falsehood and a fallacy which is prevailing in the world today as a result of the marginalization of the peoples from wealth and power.

If it was the peoples who passed laws, made decisions and crafted policies, the world would be a world of peace, equanimity, stability, love and cooperation, because peoples do not hate each other and seek peace and stability . No people would leave their land to occupy the land of another people.

An army that leaves its country to occupy other countries is made up of needy people drafted by an unjust authority which is the product of the wealth owned by a handful of exploiters, who made the politicians, who drafted the needy to form an army, and ordered them to go and die outside their land, and if they come back, they are missing a leg, an arm, their eyesight or their hearing.

This is happening in the world today. If those soldiers, who left their land to occupy and destroy another land, had stayed home as ordinary people they would not have had the desire to cross their borders and commit such heinous acts, but orders and need forced them to become soldiers for the politicians and the exploiters, and as long as they were soldiers, they would be given orders to die and colonize.

Thus, in the world today, a blackout in imposed on the Green Book. They say: “The Green Book is a dangerous book written by Algathafi, whereas in actual fact the Green Book was not written by Algathafi, but by the history of mankind.”

The Green Book is the lessons learned from our history as human beings; it is an analysis of all the facts of our past life, both sweet and bitter. The Green Book states, “Such and such a problem occurred, because things were not handled this way; handle them this way and there will be no problem.” Why were people unhappy in the past? We have found out that he who is not free cannot be happy.

We have found out that he who is need cannot be free. Therefore, freedom lies in need, and in freedom lies happiness. You will not be happy unless you are free. We found out in the past that people were not happy, because they were not free, and they were not free, because they were in need.

For people to be happy, they must be free, and to be free they must not be in need, according to the Green Book. It is the history of mankind which says that on the basis of lessons learned. Humanity, which says this, authored the Green Book.

Now, thank God, the Green Book and the ideas of the Green Book may have launched the Third Universal Theory, which is beginning to be heard and studied in the age of the internet, satellites and the information revolution. Nobody, no matter how hostile to humanity and the Green Book, can stop the ideas of the Green Book from spreading, and they will spread despite those who do not want that.

The Green Book and its ideas will be diffused over the internet and through all the modern mass media all over the world. Now, in Russia, in the Duma, professors and friendly writers have organized societies for the Friends of the Green Book, which shows that the Green Book is beginning to reach America. Some say that a country like Libya with a small population is suited to the Jamahiriy system.

On the contrary, a small state does not need the Green Book, the Jamahiriy system, and people’s power as much as the big state. The greater the population of a state, the more it needs the Jamahiriy system. If we take China as an example, it is inconceivable for a single individual or entity to rule this empire.

Also, one in Beijing cannot know the problems of people all over China, and no government, no matter how sincere, intelligent and concerned with the people’s interests, can manage the affairs of the population of China. This is not possible, because the representatives, who will be in the hundreds, cannot represent people in the billions.

We were in the process of answering the question regarding the manner in which the people can rule themselves by themselves. It is the government that rules and the representatives who rule, but how can the people rule?

We have said that the people rule themselves not by bringing them to a single chamber, which is a very superficial view. The people stay wherever they are, and convene people’s congresses, where they decide whatever they want.

These congresses, unlike assemblies, include all the population without exception. There is a difference between assemblies and congresses; assemblies are elected by the people, but the congresses comprise all the people, leaving no one outside them.

These congresses form people’s committees, which implement the decisions of the congresses. This is self – management. Thus, no law is passed unless endorsed by all the people. It is not proposed by the government or the parliament.

They, if present, have the right to make proposals, but every ordinary citizen who has an idea for a law is entitled to propose it to the entire people. If the people endorse the law, it goes into effect. However, in view of the prevailing injustice, the ordinary citizen is marginalized, and cannot propose an idea for a law in his country.

Who would listen to a citizen in India, who says, “I have a wonderful idea for a law.”? No one would, because this is not considered within his competence. Why? Because that citizen has been robbed of his will, and even his dignity, for the sake of the representative. Since you have elected a representative for you, then you are a member of a constituency represented by him, and he proposes the laws.

Then can one as an ordinary citizen contact this representative? No, that is impossible, because your relation with him and been completely severed the day you placed that ballot in the ballot box. He became a representative and you became an ordinary citizen robbed of everything it is the representatives who are entitled to propose or pass laws. Then, the millions who make up the people, the entire nation, do not have this right and are marginalized.

Al long as the nation is marginalized and has no right; thin what’s the need for this whole process, including the representation, the government and all these mechanisms?

This shows the invalidity of these mechanisms and structures extant in the whole world. It is impetrative to sweep away the representatives, the rulers, the classes and the parties, and leave the people to rule themselves by themselves. Partisanship Itself is an obsolete tool among the classical structures that cannot stand the challenges and the requirements of the modern age….’



This selection is an excerpt from Muammar al-Qathafi”s June 1992 speech, is extremely relevent to now is:

‘We would like to draw attention at this important meeting of the International Green Movements to the fear that the Green and Alternative Movements may become a part of the New World Order whose change they seek. I fear that these movements might become a complementary picture of the current world order. I would like to illustrate this by citing one simple example in a given state in the world. For instance, there is a state whose regime is authoritarian and exploitative where opposition emerges against it, but instead of changing the regime, the opposition contributes to it by giving it a democratic character without changing it….
Hence, this opposition helps the authoritarian regime. It gave the regime the appearance of a democracy only, because the opposition became part of the regime. Thus, the opposition gave the regime a prolonged life by coexisting with it and by playing its games. In other words, it is the regime which tamed the opposition and made it one of its components. It is feared that the Green Alternative Movement will become another tool for the continuation of the world order instead of becoming the alternative to this order.
The understanding was that the Green Movement would not join the World Order. Also, it was agreed that the movement refuses the parties, parliaments and the contribution in the present political process because of the failure of this process and its uselessness to citizens everywhere.

But with the passing of time, the Greens became members in parliaments. Thus, the Green Movement turned into a political entity with party structures in some parts of the world, which is exactly what is wanted by the current evil World Order, i.e., to contain and tame the Movement by having it participate in the game.
This should be rejected. When we contacted some of our friends in the Green Movements throughout the world, expressing our dismay at their entry into parties and then parliaments, their reply was:
“By entering parliaments, we wanted to ridicule them.”
However, after some time, we did not see any effect from such action. Moreover, the Green members became like the conventional deputies, presenting their opinions, objections and needs, like all the others.

This process is leading to the death of a movement on which we pinned great hopes. I would like to assent, to the best of my knowledge and information, that the present World Order is an illusion and has lost its reason for continuity, for it has lost the progressive character needed to enable it to match the movement of history. Thus, this order is suffering greatly from its inability to advance, and the evidence of its approaching death is very clear. The countries leading the world order have no arguments to convince others, nor do they enter into dialogues, except for the resort to force, which means bankruptcy in terms of ideology and logic. We notice that this order is approaching its end because of its resort to force and to state terrorism in solving their problems. The prevailing language now is that of military option, embargo, blockade and economic sanctions. This is the only dictionary left to the current World Order which has proven its bankruptcy. Now, when I see the world map, it is a joke and a mockery. Should the world continue in this manner, the globe will be turned into a colossal prison.

There is an embargo and boycott against Libya, hence, there is an international prison zone in North Africa issued by the World Order which prohibits people from contacting each other by air. The same prison zone was imposed in the Balkans on the peoples of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Macedonia. Iraq, a major country in Asia, and the Balkans in Europe were also ordered to be kept incommunicado with an air, sea and land embargo against millions of their people.
There are other areas which will be targeted by the World Order for similar treatment. Henceforth, after a while, we will find that the globe will be turned into prison zones in the name of this World Order. As a forerunner of this totalitarian World Order, which began to imprison peoples, some local racists and aggressive forces, like the Israelis, started to follow this system by imprisoning the whole Gaza Strip, banning any air, land or sea contacts as well as cutting off its electricity and telephone lines. Who can protest against this?’


2 thoughts on “WHY NEVER COMMUNISM or Capitalism/Consumerism: The Third Universal Theory is the ONLY Salvation for our Ailing Planet

  1. Anne Prucha writes:

    I think that Muammar’s words, as you say, have proven to be prophetic, because in our world, economic and social progress have not been accompanied by spiritual progress, and here is the explanation of the total lack of moral sense and solidarity of our societies.

    I would even say worse : capitalists have deliberately made their best to destroy in people the very idea of the belief in God, the respect of religion, because, when one is a believer, one can not have, at the same time, other gods, like profit and consumerism. So, in a world where the necessity to sell and buy has become the most important things, the idea of a religion which preaches exactly the contrary, solidarity and love, had to be destroyed. That is the reason why there are, in Europe, less and less people in the churches, because everything is done to make people despise the values of religion. It is very very. Sad, and Muammar, with is extreme intelligence had felt this danger very early. It is because he was opposed to the goals of this corrupt world that they tried to destroy him.

    Yes Ann–wonderfully expressed–as both Communism and Capitalism (all varients) are twin evils.

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