Voice of Resistance:
Please read the full article (Educate yourself to defend your beliefs)
Why Gaddafi called the Fatimid state?
Some question baffles and others fishing in troubled waters like what they say ..
Gaddafi called the Fatimid state is not what order Shiism as some سوقته, the private and the Wahhabis and I describe the Wahhabis do not mean to correct the Salafist and Wahhabi but itself and this is another topic.
And to know the reason Gaddafi called for the Fatimid state is not necessary for us to know what the Fatimid state and Abeche, short and simple.
Fatimid state flag was green.
Fatimid state they contain the majority Sunni and minority Shiite (people, mostly Sunni, but the Fatimid rulers were Shiites, and this does not mean that all the referees were Shiites, but that many of the areas was ruled by Sunni princes and follow the Islamic state means under Fatimid rule.
Fatimid state formed on the shoulders of weatherproofing and tribe are Amazigh tribe.
Fatimid state gave some rights not enjoyed by minorities especially like the Druze, who are now in Lebanon, Syria and other countries.
Fatimid state gave space to the freedoms of other religions to live in peace and practice their rituals in the countries in which they were اصلن of its indigenous population, such as Sicily and which follow the empire Romania and but the Fatimid state annexed to the empire and became the all Copts in all regions of the Fatimid state enjoy the same freedoms enjoyed in Sicily.
Fatimid state experienced an economic boom, architecturally and saw the construction of Al-Azhar Mosque and other well-known landmarks, especially in Egypt.
Fatimid state witnessed peaceful coexistence between Islamic sects on the one hand and the Copts on the other hand.
Fatimid state did not بتشييع people, but on the contrary studied Shiite and Sunni alike in the Al-Azhar with other religions.
In short what was sought by Gaddafi from the Fatimid state?
In short, “peaceful coexistence”
And when said Nhna need to Fatimid state again was intended:
Of the “political” means like what we said was most people and most of the Sunni rulers at the district level a year.
And for other reasons and are contain الامازيع and Tuareg and Kurds, Druze and Christians and all the boredom that live in the Arab country.
In short he could be strong if Ahtweina people who live with us in their respective countries and that is our not dragged division as happened to the Kurds of Iraq and not be without a state Kataiwariq and الامازيع and do not even seek to it because they already are looking for space for a better life only.
Perhaps call Gaddafi of the Fatimid state manifested more today in the Egyptian arena, especially the state of Althotr experienced by the country, between what they call themselves Muslims “Brotherhood bankrupts” and between the Copts and the Egyptian street simple Muslims and other sects, the Copts did not know a more co-existence with other religions as Fatimid period., and had to be of احتوائهم rather than fight them and instead is divided Egypt for Coptic and Other Islamic and shape, but the Muslim Brotherhood.
Druze in Lebanon today have their own bloc, led by Jumblatt and the bloc had always dreamed big and Druze state, which includes parts of Lebanon, Syria and other areas, and perhaps they also were the first احتوائهم rather than Maharpetthm.
Amazigh today in Libya and in Morocco and Algeria, and some areas have the same dream, but they did not formally declare it and this is the result of several factors.
Gaddafi’s idea was a “political unification” of the state that may pose a conglomerate have a great economic and political place and where people live in harmony without dividing
And especially if they knew that the Fatimid state was contained Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Tunisia, Yemen and Sicily northern Sudan.
Had we tried today that collect similar bloc will have economic and political standing in the world. And solves many problems at home, such as conflict and the Lebanese sectarian conflict and solve the problem of the Kurds, Amazigh, and other problems that we talked about.
This link of the Fatimid state.
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fatimid state _
WE ALL NEED MARY:
(excerpt from “the Messenger”, film produced by Muammar al-Qathafi)
So begins the Holy Quran verse on Jesus/ ISSA:
(MARY, round-view, then ) 9 parts in detail )
THE BEAUTIFUL TRUTH ABOUT THE LIBYAN “GREAT JAMAHIRIYA” from MATHABA.NET
13 OCTOBER 2012
‘…madness is not present in the Jamahiriya system which is exactly the solution all Libyans are again looking for only this time they are being asked to find it for themselves rather than have it handed yet again as a gift from above by the brave hands and actions of the few such as Muammar Qadhafi.That Libya should be under Islamic Law again as Libyans are Muslim should not be under dispute. This entails a recognition of the Holy Quran as the Law of Society.That Libya does not need any other man-made constitution that will only be used by one group to oppress another, should also be accepted, even though this is the case in the Jamahiriya.That the human rights of the Green Charter are advanced and accepted by the majority of Libyans should also be accepted even if this was the result of Libyans gathered in thousands of people’s conferences in 1988, so let them gather again to confirm it in thousands of people’s conferences in 2013.That there should be no political parties, no division of Libya and that all Libyans should share their abundant resources since there is more than enough to make everyone a king with a population of only four million Libyans and two million foreigners including American-Libyans, be again agreed upon once again.That therefore there should be Libyan People’s Conferences where the Libyan people legislate and People’s Committees nominated according to capability to execute those decisions, be accepted once again, even if in the past these did not function to 100% capacity, so let it be this time, call them Libyan Muslim Conferences if it makes you feel better.That the General People’s Congress and the General People’s Committee are the ideal gathering place of all the above conferences and committees and not a sham General National Congress and ‘Government’, let this be accepted and rename it to Libyan People’s Congress and Libyan General Committee if that makes you feel better so as not to have any connection to the past, to Qadhafi, to the terrible traumatic era of justice, democracy, socialism, peace and abundance.Otherwise the blind hatred caused by a few greedy capitalist vultures, or pure divine angel babies if that makes you feel better, against an entire Truth simply because it was spoken through the voice of Muammar Qadhafi, thus throwing out the baby in the bathwater, will cause you to continue to fail.For as Mahatma Gandhi said, who advocated peace: “An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does truth become error because nobody sees it.” And nor does that truth uttered by Gandhi have any right to be rejected by you on the basis that he was not a Muslim, even though he also said:“Muslims have never indulged themselves in bigotry even in times of greatest grandeur and victory. Islam enjoins an admiration for the Creator of the World and His works. As the West was in a dreadful darkness, the dazzling star of Islam shining in the East brought light, peace and relief to the suffering world. The Islamic religion is not a mendacious religion. When the Hindus study this religion with due respect, they, too, will feel the same sympathy as I do for Islam. I have read the books telling about the life-style of the Prophet of Islam and of those who were close to him. These books generated profound interest in me, so much so that when I finished reading them I regretted there being no more of them. I have arrived at the conclusion that Islam’s spreading rapidly was not by the sword. On the contrary, it was primarily owing to its simplicity, logicality, its Prophet’s great modesty, his trueness to his promises and his unlimited faithfulness towards every Muslim that many people willingly accepted Islam.”
Even if Gandhi is not talking of today’s “islamist islamic muslims”, nor even some Libyan “Muslims” who shout Allahu Akbar while committing heinous crimes, let it not dissuade you from accepting his words of truth even if it is abundantly clear the in the age of Gandhi there was still pure Islam not American-Zionist Islamism which is not recognizable in the description given by Gandhi and which if Libyans even ten percent were practising today the entire Libya would be free and at peace.
Democracy has but one face and one method: people’s conferences and people’s committees. The law of society in Jamahiriya is the Holy Qur’an. There are no parties and sects in Islam, all Muslims are one body. All power, all wealth and all arms in the hands of the people. No freedom in need. The house to its owner.
If Qaddafi uttered all these things then of course we must abandon them, rather than re-embrace them, and this time do it better. No, anything that Qaddafi advocated, anything that the Libyan people legislated without the American-Libyan minority who were still stuck abroad in the west, must all be rediscovered, the wheel must be reinvented, and there is plenty of time for this while people suffer, remain incarcerated, oppressed and abused. So delay another year and experiment with multi party demoncracy, halal credit cards and islamic banking first.
Let us all agree to rewrite history, delete the facts, pretend that the Libyan Jamahiriya was hell for everyone and that since the British experts such as George Grant have arrived to tell us what to do, things are infinitely better. But let us get back on track to take that power, wealth and arms including knowledge, back into our hands, even if it just cannot be avoided that The Green Book will be reinvented or revived since it is a simple collection of truisms from which there is no way out.’
MUAMMAR al-QATHAFI on 02 MARCH 1977:
“The law of society has been approved. It is the Koran. Together with the denomination of the Republic which will appear in the new Declaration, we will also set the law of society. If you accept the Koran as you have done before, then you must discuss the consequences. In this way you will no longer be governed by a Constitutional Declaration. We shall say no more: ‘According to the Constitutional Declaration…’ We will no longer have a Constitution. But if we incorporate the new law to the Declaration of the people’s power, the new law will never change. We must know the value of such historical things which will be included in this Declaration”.
Western And Anti-Islamic Islamism
‘ The Muslim’Brotherhood organization, a creation of British intelligence intended to serve in the rule of Muslim nations in the British empire, revealed its western orientation, pro-capitalism economic injustice and anti-socialism economic justice, as well as its agreement to negate the Holy Quran as Law in Libya.
This came during an interview conducted with Kabti who complained that the Libyan people see the Muslim Brotherhood and its “Justice and Construction” political party “through the eyes of Qadhafi”. This is an admission that the Libyan people hold to the straight non-sectarian Quranic Islam and not the fake political one.
The head of the Libyan Muslim Brotherhood sect praised the 200-member “rat council” tasked with replacing Libya’s Constitution which is the Holy Quran as confirmed at the General People’s Congress of Libya which culminated in Sebha in the Declaration of the Jamahiriya on 2nd March 1977, with one that allows for political parties, capitalism and other things outlawed by the Word of Allah.
The Holy Quran which is the Law of Society in the Libyan Jamahiriya since 1977 and the Constitution since 1st September 1969 bans any parties. Allah mentions parties only in numerous verses of the Quran which speak of the Party of God (Believers) and the Party of Disbelievers and that all affairs of the Muslims should be “amongst them under consultation” (Shura).
Islamist anti-islamic deviants such as Kabti bend the clear injunction for ALL the Muslims to engage in consultation — which is only possible via direct grass-roots participation in people’s conferences of which there are some 6,500 in the Libyan Jamahiriya — into one that they favour which is a “shura counsel” made up of islamist heretics of their own deviance, and which “decide on behalf” of the masses — in other words western “representative” democracy.
They also shun economic or indeed any other pure justice, instead favouring “free market capitalism”, claiming that it is Allah who made some people poor and others rich. They thus scorn the “ishtirakiya” (sharing or socialism) of Islam and the pursuit of justice, instead embracing political games and tricks in order to reach power, invariably backed by the British and their other western allies which are butchering Muslims across the globe.
This clear understanding of educated Libyans is what Kabti laments as the unpopularity and “suspicion” of the Muslim Brotherhood organization and its political parties as “seeing through Qaddafi’s eyes” rather than that Muammar Qaddafi’s pure and correct understanding of Quranic Islam is understood by Libyan Muslims.
The Muslim masses, who should be equal as the teeth of a comb and who should all be as fingers of one hand and two hands of one body, are not easily fooled by the deviant islamist heretics such as the so-called Muslim Brotherhood which stamp the word “islamic” upon everything to make the haram (unlawful) halal (lawful).
In this way islamists create a hatred of the fake islam they hold to be real, via islamic banks, islamic casinos, islamic rats, islamic marjeea, islamic government, islamic parties, islamic alcohol, islamic pork, islamic islamism, and so on, rather than simply submitting in Islam to Allah Subhana Wa Ta’ala’s Divine Guidance.’
from Zliten (20 August 2012):Muslim Brotherhood burns as many copies of the Koran under the pretext of the so-called line-Qadhafi Libyan Ministry of Religious Endowments and the Mufti of Libya silent.According to the center Massadermn Libyan news circulated widely among the Libyans for the groups to withdraw Libyan anonymous copies of the Koran called the (Qur’an mass) and is burned on the pretext that these copies copied the Koran there is a line of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, the Libyan martyr … According to the same sources also said that there are groups collect these copies of the Koran from some mosques in the capital Tripoli in preparation for burning …. Will we see destroying the mosques on the grounds that it was built on the orders of leader Muammar Gaddafi !!Where are the religious leaders of sedition from the burning of the Koran …??? or are they waiting for Bernard Henry Levy … To write to them copies of the Koran to bless the new …??
Source: Rusaifa news, and publish by: Dr. commander was seen 160 times, since the date of its publication in 20/08/201220 AUGUST 2012….“as I woke up morning Zliten people of the city to hear a large explosion shook with all parts of the city and terrified residents and tur…”
The bombing of one of the corners Zliten city that blew feast …. Book of Allah and thrown tear and insulted by whom? We go out every day, O ignorant in violation of the law of God nor listened –
REPRINT: this is the original unaldulterated version of the article by Hadeel Al Shalch. Reuters took it and propagandised it for their own Western purposes, by creating “Additional Reporting by Mussab Al-Khairalla; Editing by Christian Lowe, Tom Heneghan and Sonya Hepinstall” which distorted the original by Hadeel al-Shalch.
Libyans look to God for help
A man looks at a book in a library run by the World Islamic Call Society (WICS) in Algeria Square in Tripoli, 22 March 2012.
Credit: Reuters/Anis Mili/Files
By Hadeel Al ShalchiZLITAN, Libya | Wed 16 May 2012 7:40pm IST
Mohamed Salem believes it was divine intervention that saved the Muslim holy site where he works from being destroyed.
In early March 2012, word reached the keepers of the ornate shrine, the most important of its kind in Libya, that ultra-conservative Salafis were on their way to destroy it as part of a campaign to wipe out any symbols they see as idolatrous.
The curators sent for help. Volunteer Green Resistance Army militia units came from nearby towns. They surrounded the shrine complex – which houses the tomb of the 15th-century Sufi scholar Abdel Salam al-Asmar – with pick-up trucks mounted with anti-aircraft weapons, and waited to repel the attack.
Then a sandstorm, rare at that time of year, whipped up and shrouded the mosque from view. The attack never came.
“The dust was so thick and the wind so strong you couldn’t see your hand in front of you,” saidSalem, a caretaker and religious teacher at the complex. “God protected the grave of this scholarly man and protected us from harm.”
Since last year’s CIA/NATO led “February 17th” insurrection, people have grown used to looking to their own resources, the Green Resistance Army, or to God, to help them out, because they feel they cannot count on the”new” imposed puppet-government regime.
The struggle over this shrine in Zlitan, about 160 km (90 miles) west of the Libyan capital, is also the story of Libya.
It is the story of the battle for the right to define what it means to be a Muslim in Libya, of theological arguments being settled by weapons, and of an” interim government” that is so weak that it cannot impose its authority over opposing factions.
The ending has not yet been written.
The conflict over the al-Asmar tomb and hundreds of other shrines like it has not been resolved. Instead,the National Transitional Council (NTC) has postponed a decision by ordering that all the shrines be closed until it decided on a way out.
“We are keeping this subject on hold,” said NTC spokesman Mohammed al-Harizy. “We have other subjects which are more important than the graves right now.”
One afternoon in March, Salem unlocked and pushed open the door to the shrine, at the centre of the complex which also includes a school and a mosque.
A burst of incense and musk greeted him as he slipped off his slippers and muttered a short prayer before entering the cool room.
The coffin of al-Asmar stood inside, covered with Turkish rugs and surrounded by intricate blue and white mosaic patterns on the wall.
Students from all over Libya come to study Islamic law and to memorize the Islamic holy book, the Koran, at the university and school built around the shrine. Now, numbers are down.
In the school halls, the voices of young boys and girls echo in unison.
“We usually have 600 girls a day come to memorize Koran, but the parents are now afraid the Salafis will attack so only 100 show up,” said teacher Wafa al-Ati.
Muslims in Libya build shrines to revered holy men and scholars and make pilgrimages to them. There are hundreds of the shrines all over Libya. Muammar al-Qathafi promoted this practise that is so deep-seated in Libyan culture. But since the West’s imposition with an occupied Libya, sweeping away the people’s Great Jamahiriya, a new trend has emerged to challenge Melokite-Libyan traditions.
Files from the Great Jamahiriya‘s internal security agency, seen by Reuters after the revolt, show there was a special department set up to track hardline-radical Islamists [like the Muslim Brotherhood ], called by Libyans as “Salafis“. Anyone suspected of affiliation was denied the right to travel abroad, enrol in university or take public sector jobs.
Since the Jamahiriya system has been supressed, Salafis have returned and become emboldened. Some have acquired WMD weapons and used them to enforce their ultra-radical view of Islam, including the destruction of tombs and any lavish grave markings – plus the burning of any translations of the Holy Koran into any language other than Arabic–and of those in Arabic, they are burning editions published by the World Islamic Call Society of Tripoli, Libya (because the Society was promoted by Muammar al-Qathafi).
The Salafis have burned down halls were parties are held, harassed women who do not cover their heads, and try to segragate the sexes in schools and other public places….and have re-ordered Polygamy and (SAUDI/QATARI-style of) Sharia Law as interpreted by the Hadith. In the eastern city of Benghazi, organisers of a rap concert featuring a famous Tunisian artist were forced to cancel the event after being threatened by a Salafi brigade called Libya’s Shield.
Worried that the Salafis would attack their joyful annual parades to celebrate the Prophet Mohammad’s birthday in February, Sufi mosques sought safety in numbers and held a joint procession in Tripoli’s walled old city. The event, which Salafis also consider idolatrous, went off without incident.
The main front in their campaign has been their attacks on Sufi shrines, which are a traditional part of Libyan Islam. Dozens have been demolished all around the country and the bodies of their holy men dug up and dumped elsewhere.
The defenders of the shrine in Zlitan believe a Salafi militia, called the Thalath Salafi brigade, was behind the aborted attack on the complex.
The brigade is stationed in a former military base in the nearby town of Khoms. Commanders declined an interview with Reuters but in March, a spokesman addressed an angry crowd calling for their departure from the town.
“Having any sign or tomb marking a grave is a form of infidelity and must be removed,” said the spokesman for the brigade, Jalal al-Gheit. “We prefer to call it a reorganization of the graves.”
The evidence of the Salafi campaign can be seen at what remains of the Sidi Gibran shrine, also in Zlitan.
Large concrete pieces attached to metal wires dangle from where the roof used to be. A hole filled with rubble remains where the grave of the holy man, after whom the shrine is named, was dug up.
The shrine’s caretaker, who lives nearby, said he witnessed the desecration one afternoon when he heard the rumble of a tractor outside his house.
“I walked out and was surprised to see 16 bearded Salafis carrying heavy arms, and breaking the tomb using a Caterpillar tractor,” said Faraj al-Shimi. “They all ran away when I threatened to call the police.”
He said that the complaint he filed four months ago was still pending.
TERRORIST MUDDLE AND INDECISION:
The NTC has a lot on its plate trying to run a country that, since the replacement of the Great Jamahiriya,seems close to slipping into chaos.
As a Muslim leader, Imam and guide, Muammar al-Qathafi sought that Muslim’s should follow a simple, ascetic form of Islam practised by the Prophet Mohammed and his disciples. Any later additions to the faith, including those written down in the Hadath and other “holy” books written by Islamic “elite” Ulami leaders, have to be ignored in practice. Muammar al-Qathafi‘s form of Melokite Libyan-Islam tried to enforce, within the people’s Great Jamahiriya, a strict moral code, based solely upon the Holy Koran as its Sharia Law. Polygamy was prohibited under the Great Jamahiriya, arranged child marriages as void and illegal, as well as brothels, nightclubs, and bars. Alcoholic consumption was prohibited. Abortions, pornography and drug trafficating (inluding Marajauna) was illegal and laws against their use was strictly enforced as forbidden. Illegal was also usuary, interest and rent.
Under the new “GNC“, there are still armed militias that answer only to their own commanders and tribal leaders. The Jamahiriya peoples refuse to disarm, as Muammar al-Qathafi taught within his Third Universal Theory concept that all the citizenry “the right to bear arms”, and even freely handed out Kalashnikov rifles (as all able-bodied were trained in the art of self-defense).
That may partly explain why the official TNC/GNC response to the radical Islamic lawlessness has been characterised by muddle and indecision. There is also confusion at the top of the religious hierarchy, where some of the TNC/GNC Qatari al-Qaeda officials seem to be theologically closer to the Salafis than Libya’s traditional Melokite-inspired Islam.
Back in November last year, Grand Mufti Sadeq al-Ghariani, Libya’s highest ranking Islamic scholar, who carries the NTC‘s endorsement, issued a religious decree declaring that it was forbidden to desecrate graves; but he was also reported to have remarked that the time for such action was not ripe, a comment nervous Muslims took as a sign his defence of shrines might not be as strong as it might seem.
In March 2012, NTC chairman Mustafa Abdel Jalil met the mufti and representatives of Libya’s Sufi and Salafi camps. Salem, the curator of Zlitan’s al-Asmar shrine, was at the meeting. He said he asked for security for the complex. Instead, the issue was fudged. Salem said he left the meeting with an order from Abdel Jalil to shutter the tomb and wait for further notice. “We received no security,” he said.
Since then, official institutions have been passing the buck. The NTC said it is waiting for the mufti to make a decision on the religious legality of the grave sites. And the mufti’s office told Reuters it is waiting for theNTC to make a final decision.
Harizy, the NTC spokesman, said the quarrel was all part of “a natural evolution for Libya. Libyan people are used to working in secret, so no one knows who’s who,” Harizy said. “So we have to open the door for everybody to express his opinion and to try to bring the Islam which is moderate.” [MY (CBK) REMARK: HAH! Idiot, lier!]
In the meantime, caretakers at the al-Asmar shrine have the more immediate concern of how to stop the complex from being destroyed by Salafis, without help from the TNC/GNC state. (The Green Resistance Army is helping to protect the Shrine.) For the past few weeks, the complex has organised an armedGreen brigade of 30 to 40 volunteers from Zlitan who stand guard at the tomb.
“We are not protecting this tomb because we worship it; —We protect it because it is a part of our heritage and culture,” said Salem.
During Eid-al-Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, Muslims in Libya will offer prayers for the return of the Great Jamahiriya, a people’s system of stable direct democracy, in which the Holy Koran was not only sacred, but the law—-(beside the 1988 Great Universal Charter of Human Rights).
The cynic Salafists terrorism against sacred religious symbols
All over Libya, SALAFISTS have destroyed (and continue to destroy) all shrines and mosques and copies of the
HOLY QURAN which were sanctioned, financed or built by Muammar al-Qathafi.
[all copies of the HOLY QURAN which were authorised by Muammar al-Qathafi (through the World Islamic Leadership and the World Islamic Call Society) have also been systematicly burned!]
It is a common tactic of the U.S. special services, French and English pa ra humiliate believers of different religions and stoke the collective punishment and indiscriminate killing. Imperialism as a tool using criminal gangs funded Salafi fanatics Saudi Arabia creates complete chaos to justify military invasions and looting of the resources of the people.
Serbian Orthodox Churches in Kosovo-Metohija, Serbia Yugoslavia and destroyed by Albanian terrorists Muslims allegedly gang KLA NATO serving
Sunni Mosque in Damascus attacked savagely by the CIA’s Salafis
Old Damascus synagogue destroyed and burned by the same criminals
Syriac Christian Church of Homs ravaged by mercenaries and criminal gangs trained by the CIA and paid by Saudi Arabia
West paid dearly for its support to mercenaries and terrorists in Syria
source: by Mirko Senda
the World Islamic Call Society (WICS)
The World Islamic People’s Leadership is headed by leader Muammar al-Qathafi, and the Brother Farrakhan is assisting the leader in this regard.
We have about 250 organizations under the umbrella of the World Islamic People’s Leadership from different parts of the world and they meet at a general conference once every four years.
A little over three weeks ago, Minister Farrakhan was there attending the 5th general conference of World Islamic People’s Leadership.
There is a yearly agenda of how to serve the Muslim communities; how to defend the rights of the Muslims all over the world, how to bring the Muslim Ummah together; how to deal with some political and social crises happening either in the Muslim world or where there is a Muslim minority, especially in Europe.
Founded in 1970 by Libyan leader Muammar al-Qathafi, the WICS is comprised of more than 250 Islamic organizations from around the world who are members of the General Congress of the organization.
A general conference is held once every four years, in which religious, cultural, social and economic initiatives are formed and acted upon and a summary and status update is delivered regarding previous outreach and development programming.
Its preamble was the following:
“The World Islamic People’s Leadership calls upon all Islamic regimes to abide by the Human Rights spelled out in Islam which ensure the participation of all Muslims in the governing and defence of their countries. The leadership believes that this is the best course to take in order to promote reliance on the Jamahiri struggle (Jihad) and to combat extremism and the dangerous phenomenon of despair.”
In Bosnia, Shaykh Mustafa also expressed to convey his regards to brother Muammar Gaddafi, The Leader of The World Islamic People’s Leadership for his efforts in the service of Islam and to bring about peace and justice in the world.
the regards of brother Muammar Gaddafi, the Leader of the World Islamic People’s Leadership and his interest in ‘the Call’ in its cultural and humanitarian aspects.
the continuation of the WICS in its path that was pursued since its very beginning in the Call to God through wisdom and good approach sermon, and introduction to Islam and to highlight its contributions to the human civilization and cooperation with the people of different religious background in colaboration that would lead to the good and work in promoting the truth, justice and peace….
The President requested the WICS Secretary General to convey his regards and appreciationto the Brother Muammar Gaddafi the Leader ofthe World Islamic People’s Leadership and expressing his gratitude for the efforts of Gaddaffi to introduce Islam tothe world as religion, culture and civilization.
The President also referred to the continuous efforts of Gaddaffi forbuilding peace and co-existence, honoring identity without compromising the Islamic identity.
At the end of his address, the President declared the opening of the 19th session of the WICC.
At the beginning of the first work session which was opened by the recital of verses from the Holy Qur’an, the Secretary General welcomed the Council members and their guests, pointing out that since the 18th session, which was held in Kuala Lumpur, several cultural, educational and dialogue events have been witnessed in the Islamic and world arena.
There are also a number of activities related to those developments. The Secretary General referred in particular to the importance of institutional cooperation to deal with poverty issues and environment, together with the mutual work with other religions to enhance religious values and to abandon violence and the culture of fanaticism with duefocusing on building human life.
Then the Rapporteur General addressed the meeting, referring to the legality of the meeting as 30 members out of 35 participated; as the other five were absent for various justifications.
The Rapporteur presented the meeting agenda which was approved as follows:
Report of the Executive Committee’s Council on theactivities of WICS for the period between the 18th andthe 19th session.
Report on the Faculty of Islamic Call and its branches.
Reports of the Council’s members concerning Da’awa and cultural and humanitarian activities.
Arrangements and preparations for the 8th General Conference of WICS.
Discussing the latest developments in the MuslimWorld.
In accordance with the above, the Council reviewedthe first item as represented in the Council Executive Committee’s report on the WICS activities in the period between the Council’s 18th and 19th sessions.
After extended deliberation, the report was approved with the following notes:
The report is to include the educational, cultural and humanitarian achievements which were achieved in the framework of the pilot-project “Post of Kano” and the irintegration within the WICS activities since the beginning of this year.
To enhance the report with diagrams and tables reflecting the development of those activities and showing the respective financial figures.
Paying more attention to the region of East Africa, particularly the African Horn region, by executing educational, cultural and humanitarian programs similar to those implemented in the other regions of Africa.
To emphasize the necessity to involve the Council members in the preparation and supervision of programs implemented by WICS and taking their notes and assessment of such activities.
After that, the Council discussed the second item regarding the activities of the WICS Islamic College, its branches and the Islamic College in London. The members of the Council reviewed the report on this issue.
After the discussion of the report, it was approved with the note to continue support to the college programs, to consolidate relations with institutions, universities and research centers, to activate coordination with the college alumnae, to organize vocational training courses and to expand foreign language teaching programs.
In the second session, the members of the Council agreed to integrate items 3 and 5 covering the Islamic Call, cultural and humanitarian activities and the views of the members and suggestions on the latest developments in the Muslim World which are relating to the Councilwork. In this framework most of the Council members presented reports, interventions and clarifications covering the following recommendations:
To emphasize the significance of interfaith dialogue and cultural communication with the view to raise awareness in the other party cultures and religions, and to build on the common grounds for the enhancement of values and upgrading of cooperation for peace, justice and equality taking into consideration the particularities of belief and basis of cultural identity.
To double the efforts for rooting Islamic identity basis in the minds of youth, calling for the educational references in the Islamic World to prioritize this concept through education curricula, provided that curricula development will not be taken as a pretext to distort the Islamic personality or destabilize its basis.
The Council expresses its appreciation for all the good efforts to stop the bloodshed in various parts of the Muslim World, particularly in Somalia and in the Darfur region of the Sudan.
The Council urges all concerned partiesto resort to dialogue and rationality in solving conflicts,thus preventing foreign interventions whose strategiesand ambitions contradict with the vital interests of Muslims in that region.
The Council has condemned all patterns of oppression and use of force or threatening and saber-rattling outside international laws and norms, in addition to all kinds of siege and imposing of starvation.
In this context, the Council calls for the consolidation of international efforts to lift the unjust siege on Gaza inhabitants. The Council emphasized on the importance of the media to introduce Islam as religion, culture and civilization refuting all methods of calumny and aggression imposed on Muslims, particularly in the West. The Council calls for the consideration to hold a Muslim journalists conference to discuss the mechanisms and media strategies,
No. 1119 Wednesday 8 Jumadal – AKher 11 Al-Saif .20 08
introducing Islam and refuting all calumnies against Islam.The Council emphasizes on the importance to pursue technical and scientific advancement, calling all Islamic states and organizations to double their efforts in this regard to achieve sustainable and comprehensive human development contributingto achievement of welfare and prosperity.
The Council expresses its appreciation to the Sufi Orders in consolidating Islamic values, spiritual education, disseminationof Islamic values and upbringing of the coming generations on basis of goodness and virtue.
The Council also calls on giving more attention to the Sufi Orders and to develop mechanisms of spiritual, social and cultural Sufi performance.
The Council expresses its satisfaction for the harmony and cooperation amongthe religious and ethnic entities of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Council appreciates in particular the efforts of the Bosnian Interfaith Council which have been presented to the membersof the Council.
The Council expresses its thanks and appreciation for the contributions of the Council guests, Muslims and Christians who enriched this meeting with their interventions, visions, intellectual contributionsand analysis of some of the issues discussed by the Council.
In the third session, the members ofthe Council discussed the paper on the preparations to hold the 8th General Conference of “The World Islamic Call Society”.
The paper was duly discussed including ideas and proposals relating thereto.
The participants have agreed on the following:To approve the paper proposal regarding venue and date of the meeting and organization of regional gatherings which will refer recommendations and proposals regarding thereto.
To focus on the necessity of the significant presence of youth and women together with an appropriate geographical representation of Islamic minorities and groups.
To organize scientific seminars priorto the holding of the conference, to discusssome important issue such as media, development, dialogue, etc. to present the conclusions to the conference.
To divide the conference during its convention into specialized committees in accordance with the issues presented for discussion.
To authorize the Executive Committeeof the WICC to select the slogan of the conference and any other matters ensuring the conference success.
In conclusion the participants decided to send two telegrams of appreciation to His Excellency, President Haris Silajdzic, the President of the Presidency of Bosniaand Herzegovina, and to brother MuammarGaddafi, The Leader of The World Islamic People’s Leadership.
They alsodecided to send a letter of thanks to His Honour, Shaykh Dr. Mustafa Ceric, the Council members and Head of Islamic Community (Masheekha) in Bosnia and Head of the Scholars in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
WORLD ISLAMIC CALL SOCIETY جمعية الدعوة الاسلامية العالميةLast Updated: 2011-11-10 Address: WORLD ISLAMIC CALL SOCIETY
جمعية الدعوة الاسلامية العالميةKm5, Route Sawani – Tripoli,Tripoli, Tripoli 00218, LIBYA
Phone: 00 218 21 4808461/4
Fax: 00 218 21 480 0293/5
General Information: World Islamic Call Society (Abbreviated: W.I.C.S)
(Arabic: جمعية الدعوة الإسلامية العالمية)
is a non-profit entity that is comprised of more than 250 Islamic Organizations from around the world who are members of its General Congress.
1997-Present: , The Rightly Guided , touring different countries
World Islamic Call Society (WICS)
[FR] [NGO Section Data]Association mondiale pour l’appel islamique
Make known the call of Islam worldwide by all peaceful means, in particular by:
diffusing Islamic culture and the Arabic language;
promoting peace and international cooperation;
classifying Islamic law;
compiling and publishing reference works;
creating centres of education.
United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)* (Ros C); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)* (Consultative Status).
provides material and equipment;
awards student scholarships;
has created a number of Islamic educational centres and institutes, hospitals and orphanages and RC churches;
distributes food and runs health and feeding centres in Somalia.
Instrumental in setting up:
Islamic Call College* (Tripoli and Damascus);
Islamic College, London*.
Islamic Call (2 a month) in Arabic, English, French; Message of Jihad (12 a year) in Arabic, English, French.
world translations of the Holy Quaran.
UNESCO NGO Section DataReclassification date2002Name and contact details of NGO focal point atUNESCOM. Ziadah M. (who later became a Jerdan TRAITOR and organised groups to assassinateMuammar al-Qathafi!)
Programme sector: CLTOui
Organizations and individuals, in 36 countries: • Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan, Tunisia.
• Brazil, Canada, Guyana, United States of America.
• India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Philippines, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen.
• Austria, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Serbia-Montenegro*, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
History1972 Creation 1984 Category C 1986
Category B 1998 Operational Relations (155 EX/40) (155 EX/Dec. 8.7)
1999 Operational Relations (156 EX/36)
(156 EX/Dec.9.2) 2002 Formal Consultative Relations (165 EX/ONG.2)
(165 EX/Dec. 9.5) 2009 Renewal of formal consultative relations for a new six year period (181 EX/44)
Contribution to UNESCO’s programmes
Founded in 1972, the World Islamic Call Society, an organization with the structure of an NGO and the project-funding activities of a foundation, was admitted to former category C in 1984,
then to former category B in 1986.
Since 1980, WICS has contributed financially to the implementation of several UNESCO projects which dealt in particular with the rational use and conservation of water resources in Africa,
the history of the scientific and cultural development of humanity,
the use of Arabic script in African languages,
he publication of works on Islamic culture and the history of humanity,
the awarding of grants for translation into Arabic of these works, and so on.
Co-operation agreements were signed between the two organizations in August 1995 in Geneva, and in Tripoli in 1997.
However in recent years, due to the exceptional situation of the country hosting its headquarters, communication with WICS has not been regular.
Nevertheless, it must be noted that WICS has enabled a working capital fund to be established for operational projects and has contributed in an effective way to the implementation of several UNESCO programmes.
Laurence Aida Ammour August 2012:
Despite the suspicion on which he was the object of Western leaders, Muammar al-Qathafi has been subsidizing one of the most influential global network of Islamic missionaries, whose headquarters is located on the campus of Benghazi (see photos ), which has an office in Tripoli:the Society for the Call to the Islamic World (SAMI) (Al Dawa Islamiyah al- or World Islamic Call Society, WICS) was established in 1972.
NGO seemingly legitimate goals
The stated mission of this company was the construction of mosques, hospitals and clinics, humanitarian assistance, free religious studies for youth without means, or the funding of scientific research. Sent missionaries throughout Africa were officially responsible for preaching a Sufi to counteract the influence of Saudi Wahhabism/SALAFISM.
SAMI was funded through the levy of a tax of 3% of the income of every citizen, and a 4% tax on profits of companies operating in Libya.
SAMI was accountable only to Muammar al-Qathafi himself and his financial transactions were exempt from all taxes.
According to Massoud al-Wazni, a member of the investigation committee on the current activities of the Company, the annual budget of the SAMI was $ 45 million, administrative staff had 900 people, and teachers about 2,000 professors Arabic and many preachers in the world. But this figure does not include cash amounts recovered from hand to hand. A staff member said he had been asked to submit two African ministers, an envelope of $ 25 000 each.
The Company had acquired such a reputation in the Muslim-Christian dialogue that counted among its partners and supporters, institutions and prestigious personalities:
the Vatican (the Pope John Paul II and Benedict XVI received the Secretary);the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, who gave a lecture on the campus of the SAMI in 2009;the U.S. State Department, which in 2009 welcomed the positive contribution of migrants to the Society of Catholic Filipinos who were offered their church in Libya  .
Among the relatives of the Company there is also the General Secretary of the World Council of Churches held a conference in Tripoli just one month before the CIA-led uprising in February 2011.
Although Gaddafi has fought the Muslim Brotherhood in Libya, the Company also had regular contact with them. At a meeting organized inter-religious Tripoli in 2008 by SAMI, Ibrahim Abu-Rabi, Chair of Islamic Studies at the University of Alberta (Edmonton, Canada) gave a speech on relations between Muslims  .
Today, the SAMI storefront, and you can find the description of its official activities on the Internet  , and its address on the website of UNESCO in Paris, with whom SAMI has signed three agreements for educational projects  .However, behind the façade humanitarian and proselytizing, the company had other purposes unstated., as financial assistance to political organisations: à des organisations politiques
In 2010, Swedish Radio reported that the SAMI, which has a mosque in Malmö since 2008, had been identified by the Dutch authorities as an entity of the Libyan secret service “Bejzat Becirov (President of the Islamic Center of the city) has a long relationship with the World Islamic Call Society (WICS), which paid $ 1.4 million to buy the land from the mosque to the municipality of Malmö in 1983. In July 2008 the organization has done to purchase the entire property for $ 5.2 million.For several years, three Libyans were in the direction of the Islamic Center, but according Becirov they did not participate in any meeting. The one with whom he was in contact Nowesri Ahmed Ali Hadi is only for issues related to religion. In the late 90s Nowesri Hadi Ahmed Ali was the Imam of the mosque Omar al-Faruq in Utrecht, the Netherlands, where the World Islamic Call Society also has an office. The Dutch security service (AIVD) became interested in the organization and have realized that it was against the integration of Muslims in the Netherlands. In 2002, the AIVD confirmed in a report that the World Islamic Call Society was an instrument of the Libyan security services. In autumn 2000, Imam Hadi had been deported from the Netherlands ”  .
SAMI has quickly became a strategic asset for Muammar al-Qathafi when his relations with the West have improved from 2003  . In reality the company was part of the Libyan intelligence network, as evidenced by the presence within it of intelligence officers.
Several areas were the subject of the influence strategy and penetration SAMI:
Africa, where the targeted large Muslim communities in West Africa and the Sahel considered the backyards of Libya, and political leaders;Europe, where the SAMI has built many mosques “minorities” in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Malta and the Netherlands. SAMI also contributed to the construction of the mosque in Rome and London Central Mosque; Asia, where SAMI was very active in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia.
With regard to Africa, the main target of the SAMI is from 1990 that the Company has expanded its operations on the continent. Of “Islamic convoys” of medicine and food were sent to many countries to South Africa. SAMI has lectured widely on education and culture, and the links between Africa and the Arab world. It has also funded Islamic radio stations in Togo, Benin, Chad, Cameroon, Mali and South Africa.
Several African leaders expressed their support for Muammar al-Qathafi during the embargo against Libya, and Nelson Mandela went to Tripoli in October 1997 to thank Muammar al-Qathafi for his support to the ANC during apartheid. That same year, prayer sessions were organized by the missionaries in Niamey and Kano, and then in 2000 in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Togo.SAMI has proven to be an ideal camouflage in the 80s, when the embargo against Libya. Its status as an independent NGO allowed him to circumvent UN sanctions and U.S. continued to send money to some African leaders and continue his religious activities  .
Muammar al-Qathafi created World Islamic People’s Leadership (LPIM), a separate department within the SAMI, which realizes that its secretary general, Mohammed Ahmed al-Sharif. LPIM the mission was to mobilize Muslim leaders around the world to support Muslim revolutionaeies in Chechnya, Kosovo and Somalia to defend the women wearing the veil in Europe and encourage black Muslims in the United States. Moreover, among U.S. allies Muammar al-Qathafi found the Islamic black preacher Louis Farrakhan, Nation of Islam leader since 1981 , who visited Libya in 1996 to receive the “Prize Gaddafi rights of man ” and a sum of 250,000 dollars.
Just before the entry into force of the embargo, the traitor Abdel Rahman Shalgam then Libyan Minister of Foreign Affairs, was received at the Vatican to seek help. The Catholic Bishop of Tripoli, Giovanni Martinelli, supported Gaddafi calling on Western countries not to humiliate but to talk with him. The Foreign Minister was received at the Vatican Tripoli in 1994.In 1997 Pope John Paul II as head of state, recognized Libya despite the recommendations of the United States.
The question is how this company was able to escape the attention of Western countries. His involvement in the dialogue of religions and the message considered “moderate” by the Europeans and Americans, especially after September 11, managed to confuse the emerging face of Islamist radicalism. The attention was then focused on North African Melokite Islam (in opposition and counteraction to the radical SALAFISM/Wanahabiism of Saudi Arabia) through the Muslim World League was created in 1962 and competed from 1972 by SAMI Jamahiriya.
In a book recently published Arabic (Men around Gaddafi), the former foreign minister of Muammar al-Qathafi, Shalgam [LYING dissident], the former ambassador to the United Nations in New York, argued that al-Qathafi used the company as an instrument of struggle against Heads of State African Christians and Muslims seeking support groups to take power on the continent. Shalgam being the real embezzler, accused the former Secretary General al-Sharif for providing itself of cash in several African leaders to finance their election campaigns. “From the beginning SAMI Gaddafi wanted an external weapon which is personally affiliated” said Abdul Rahman Shalgam. “Here in Libya, the company was called the Society for the Call for World Security  . ”
The apparent independence of the Company is cracked with the Libyan revolution. During the fighting between rebels and loyalist forces, the former secretary general Mohammed Ahmed al-Sharif, visited Russia and Sri Lanka to try to mediate with the rebels. Traitor Shalgam also accuses al-Sharif to have used the money to pay for the SAMI Africans responsible for defending Gaddafi . [THIS IS AN OUTRIGHT LIE, as Muammar al-Qathafi and the JAMAHIRIYA NEVER employed or used mercenaries !]  .
Libyan leaders want to preserve the current SAMI because they see it as a religious entity whose role is positive and beneficial. They want to make an instrument of soft power in the Puppet NATO Libya. A committee headed by a notorious anti-Gaddafi, Al-Sheikh Mohammed Al-Doukali Alem, created a FALSIFIEDinquiry into the past activities of the Company. However, the majority of staff is still in place and the NATO-PUPPET National Transitional Council was satisfied with the “purging of the façade”.
 The 2009 Report of the U.S. State Department on Religious Freedom focuses on religious moderation and interfaith cooperation within the SAMI, described as “the instrument by which the state promotes Islam ( implied moderate) “and the” religious arm of the government’s foreign policy. ”
See U.S. Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2009, released by the Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Washington DC, October 26, 2009.
 This Chair was established in 2007 through a grant from the Edmonton Council of Muslim Communities, an organization linked to the Muslim Brotherhood and funded by the countries of the Gulf.
 are listed address and telephone number of the office in Tripoli (Km 5 Route Sawani), e-mail, and activities summarized as follows:”Reciters of the Qur’an falling on the blessing month of Ramadan , Racing to cultivate Callers and Imams (du’at). ” See
 World Islamic Call Society, Secretary General Dr Mohamed A.Sheriff, 1 rue Miollis, 75015 Paris, including the phone number and e-mail. See www3.unesco.org According to the Report of the Executive Committee on the activities of the Company (Rome, May 2004, see Appendix), 220 cultural and scientific projects have been implemented in fifteen African countries, including 60 centers in reading Senegal, Guinea, Niger., Burkina Faso, Gambia, Nigeria, Chad and Mali.
 For example, “Jihad Fund” created by Gaddafi to help financially Palestinians.
 See “Malmö: Libyan organization linked to Libyan intelligence agency” Sverige Radio, March 2, 2010. Translated by the author.
 In 2010, when the Canadian Agency for the Control of incomes conducted an audit of the Company in Ontario, it concluded that the funds from Libya were mostly distributed outside of Canada. In 1998, the office of the Ontario Society had transferred 216 735.41 dollars in the United States and Trinidad. The following year, he sent 350,135.60 dollars in the United States, Egypt and Trinidad.
The agency found Abdurahman Muhammad Alamoudi that some who advises the U.S. State Department on inter-religious relations, was involved in the embezzlement of funds of the Company to other destinations. Canada then closed the office in March 2011. See footnote 6.
11] In 1995, the fifth conference of the Society reported the conviction of sanctions against Libya by the Muslim world. There is also a mention of the collaboration between La Company with UNESCO and UNICEF, and the annual meeting of Muslim-Christian dialogue leading to a link to the Vatican website.
(“Islamic resistance against UN sanctions”) and
 Organization that advocated black supremacy, total separation between blacks and whites, and the “Muslim nationalism”, which Malcolm X was the chief spokesman until it separates in 1964 after his pilgrimage to Mecca, where he discovered that there was a brotherhood between Muslims of all backgrounds, and opposes the anti-white racism of the organization. Louis Farrakhan was FALSELY suspected of complicity in the murder of Malcolm X attack in February 1965. See Tom Henneghan “Gaddadi’s secret missionaries,” Reuters [Puppet ZIONIST PROPAGANA NEWS SERVICE]Special Report, 29 March 2012.
 On the FALSE CHARGE OF African mercenaries, see Laurence Ammour Aida, “Hands-African force: an instrument of domestic politics and diplomacy Libyan” Open Forum no. 16 French Centre for Research on Intelligence (CF2R), July 2011.
4000 mercenaries eliminated in the last three weeks. The plotters the CIA, NATO and Al Qaeda-called “opposition” defeated desperately seeking a political negotiation ….
Heavy casualties among the terrorists in different parts of the country to break into their hiding places and centers of concentration
The armed forces continued their operations against the terrorist group elements in different parts of the country.
VIDEO: OBAMA BURIES BOSTON MASSACRE SAUDI
One Boston Massacre terrorist is dead, under suspicious circumstances. We saw the second terrorist—Dzhokhar Tsarnaev—literally shut down an entire metropolitan area for over twenty-four hours. And now he’s under lock and key, whisked away from the public eye.
America saw what martial law looked like as light-armored tanks roamed the streets and hundreds of special forces conducted a house-to-house search, looking for Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, apparently a punk kid.
Except martial law was never declared. Except America wondered: if one nineteen-year-old kid could shut down an entire metropolitan area, what could a small contingent of al-Qaeda jihadis do? Was this the future of America under a President who declared in 2008 that he would make peace with the Muslim world?
What exactly is going on? Is there some type of cover-up? Why was the initial suspect (the Saudi national Abdul Rahman Ali Alharbi’s) apartment searched? Why was he declared a “person of interest,” then suddenly widely reported to be being deported, to which ICE stated the information was “categorically false.” Janet Napolitano, in a fiery exchange during congressional hearings, refused to answer whether the information was true or not.
But according to a Congressional Source, the information is in fact categorically true—that Alharbi is in fact linked to the Boston terrorist attack.
It was reported on April 18 according to an FBI source that the Obama administration had classified the specifics of the deportation. It was also reported that Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) had classified the matter under section 212 3B, “Security and related grounds/Terrorist activities.”
We know, according to radical Islamist expert Walid Shoebat, that Alharbi has at least a dozen members of his clan connected to al-Qaeda, including members behind held at Gitmo.
What exactly is Barack Hussein Obama hiding? Is he hiding behind the skirts of his Saudi handlers?
By Raymond Ibrahim
The U.S. Ambassador to Egypt, Anne Patterson, is being accused of some outlandish behavior and remarks. Last week, several Egyptian papers and websites, including Al Dostor, reported that Dia’ al-Din al-Garahi, a human rights lawyer and president of the Justice Center for Freedoms and Media, submitted a complaint to the Attorney General accusing Patterson “of libel and defamation of the Egyptian people and making statements that are likely to disturb society and threaten Egypt’s security.”
According to Report 935 of the Attorney General, “the American Ambassador, after drinking alcohol in contradiction to Islamic Sharia law, said that she rules Egypt and that the Egyptian people are under her authority, that she controls them like a puppet, and that the Egyptian people have no idea of what is transpiring around them.”
The report further adds, citing one Dr. Latif Shaker, a Palestinian writer living in America, that the U.S. ambassador had earlier said that “the Jews will return to Egypt in 2013 and that they are the masters of the earth”; that “Egypt will go bankrupt during this year and Egyptians will turn to the United States to save them from famine and poverty.” The report further accuses Patterson of saying that “the land of Egypt belongs to the Jews, for it was theirs originally,” and that “the Jews were kicked out of Egypt after building the pyramids and DNA analysis reveals that King Tut was a Jew.”
October 4, 2010 by Diane Maclean
Rb1 has its origins in the Black Sea are of Anatolia or the Causcasus Mountains. Hammer et al (2008) places its age at 18, 500 years. Distributuin maps of genetic plate Rb1 indicate an Anatolian (Indo-European) paternal connection with Egypt’s 18th Dystasty (Akhanaton and King Tut).2005, SARICH, MIELI: “Race, the realty of Human Differences”“R” Haplogroup has it irigins in Euro-West Asia.3/4 of Englishmen were originally Basques, coming to the British Isles between 15,000 – 7, 500 years ago [when the Ice-sheet retreated], according to Stephen Oppenheimer.
Lorraine Evans gives us a fine view of some very stunning events from some 13 centuries before Christ. She has established that the mythical “Scota” was based on the very historical Meritaten, eldest daughter of Akhenatenan , an Egyptian Princess that had to flee her country.Revealed is Meritaten’s voyage from the ancient Egyptian palaces at Thebes, along the amber trade routes of old Europe to the Ferriby boats in Yorkshire through the British Isles; and what it means in cultural or religious terms… With DNA technology, backed up by the latest archaeological finds and genetic research, we are closer to understanding prehistory than ever. Plenty of scope for David Rohl, Blackett and Wilson (check out ‘Moses in the Hieroglyphs’), and indeed Lorraine Evans to fill in some pieces. The book dates from 2000 and yet there have been documentaries on the subject predating her thesis.AVARIS was the greatest expansion of the Land of Goshen, the territory of Egypt which the Vizier of Egypt Yuya/ Joseph gave to his family. These were to be the “Hyskos”/ IBURU (or so-called “Phoenician invaders”) who were soon to “co-rule” Egypt [decending from the Israelic bloodline] .PHOENICIANS were the elite of the Semitic Race. This word is commonly said to derive from phoenix, the bird which rises from its own ashes after 5-600 years.
The phoenix’s death and rebirth was a cryptic analog to the Saros Cycle in astronomy. The Phoenicians were star-gazers, astronomers and masternavigators. They were the only workers of skill with wood and were the worlds greatest maritime people. Later-on, they were the builders of Solomon’s Temple, and many other cities and structures. Tyre and Carthage were their great centers. [The Venetians and Irish Fenians may be related to these
seafarers, miners and architects.] The Phoenicians are known to have visited Ireland. The Phoenician king Menes is even believed to be buried in Londonderry. (See, Makers of Civilization, by L. A. Waddell) They also integrated with the peoples who left Troy, settling in the AVARIS region. These Trojans had military and fort-building expertise, which eventually led them to being so powerful in Egypt —through Joseph’s family;…but which also caused a revolt (about the time of Ahemenhotep III /Akhenaten).
At the time of the Bibical EXODUS, the Santorini mega-volcanoe blew-op, covering not only Minoan Crete but the great fort at AVARIS in Egypt. This led the way for the historical “Egypt to Palestine” trek of the Nile Valley through the Sinai Desert. Even the Bible states that not all the peoples of the “Exodus” coming-out of Egypt were literally Joseph’s decendents. It was a mixed population, consisting mostly of Hebrews; but also of other followers of Akhenaton. Some, even did not go all the way to Palestine, but headed North-West back to Mycenae/Crete (where legends and depictions converge with the Egyptian and Hebraic Cultures in art, music and literature and design). And , apparently some others [including the daughter of Akhenaton] headed further North-West, eventually leading them into what we now call the British Isles…a land aready occupied by Basque peoples who migrated at the end of the last ice-age north from the mountains of Eastern Spain [and what is also Western Pyranéetic France]. This fits in very well with the genetic-memory of J.R.R. Tolkein, written within his “annuls” of his “Lord of the Rings”….apparently, more real than fiction [if we see GONDOR as Spain, the Rhone River Valley as France, and Mount Doom as Vesuvius].
15th century manuscript of Bower’s Scotichronicon
At first glance there doesn’t seem to be much connection between the land of the Pyramids and the land of Irn Bru, but that hasn’t put off a number of people, including the ex-owner of Harrods, Mohammed al-Fayed, from believing that Scotland, the place and the people, are in fact descended from an Egyptian princess called Scota.
Such is Mr Fayed’s belief, that he has in the past considered building a statue to this Pharaoh’s daughter, The error which he enshews, probably stems from the real truth found within Biblical and other historical accounts of the life of the Prophet Jeremiah, and Tamar, the daughter of King Zedekiah. Biblical history ends with their exile to Tahpahnes, Egypt, where some believe Jeremiah died a martyr’s death. This novel, however, continues the story as found in the histories and legends of Ireland, where Jeremiah is known as Ollam Fodhla, the learned prophet, and Tamar, as the wife of King Heremon. Through their posterity come the kings and queens of Ireland, Scotland and England, including today’s Queen Elizabeth II. This tender romance of young royals caught up in the turmoil of the dark days of the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC entwines the reader in their struggle to survive against savage seas and ancient pagan cultures, as they and the prophet establish a Golden Age in Ireland.
The claim of Egyptian roots for Scotland does, at first, appear to have some heavy-weight champions beyond the man sometime referred to in Private Eye as the “phoney Pharaoh”. Walter Bower, who wrote his great work of Scottish history “Scotichronicon” in the late 1440s, records his version of where the people of Scotland derived. Here we see for the first time a direct reference to our descent from a Pharaoh’s daughter and her husband, a Greek king. She was Scota, from whence came Scotland, he was Gavthelos, hence Gaelic, and their son was Hiber – which of course leads us to Hibernia.
Bower’s history was not the first place which suggested an exalted history for the Scots, Dust down your copy of the Declaration of Arbroath and you’ll find added weight to our Eastern ancestry. The document was written in 1320 by 51 Barons and Noblemen of Scotland imploring the Pope to intervene on their behalf against the English during the Wars of Independence. Their letter begins:
“Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous.”
So far, so good, except that few historians regard this origin-myth as anything more than political bigging-up by a nation who needed to make themselves more grandiose than they were by attempting to trace their roots back to Biblical times. At the very least they might have thought it would impress the Pope.
The idea of Scota, the princess, gained more of a following with the publication of Ralph Ellis’s book “Scota, Egyptian Queen of the Scots”. Ellis uses as his starting off point an ancient text: “The History of Egypt’ written in 300BC by an Egypto-Greek historian called Manetho Ellis. This recounts the story of a royal family’s expulsion from Egypt during a time of war and uprising.
Using Manetho’s text as a starting point, Ellis then identified Scota as Ankhesenamun, daughter of Akhenaton and Nefertiti. He tracks the family’s journey west where, according to Ellis, they had ships enough for 1,000 of their followers and plentiful supplies. They landed first in Spain, where they lived for several generations, their first-born son Hiber, giving rise to the naming of the area as Iberian. Later they moved to Ireland where Ellis offers archaeological proof in the form of necklaces found there which resemble Egyptian torcs and tombs which he suggests could only have been built with Egyptian know-how.
From Ireland to Scotland was a short boat-ride and so, the Pharaonic family eventually crossed the water, bringing with them, yes, you’ve guessed, Jacob’s Pillow, AKA the Stone of Destiny.
It is certainly a great yarn and one that Al-Fayed has taken very much to heart; but it still is in defiance of the truth of Jeremiah
Prophet Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem – by Rembrandt va
bringing the Stone of Destiny with him, when he and adopted daughter (TAMAR, the sole-surviving daughter of Israelite King Zedekiah) fled to the High Tur of the British Isles, upon the fall/ransacking of Jerusalem by Babylon. In Tamar the Tender Twig by Doris Charriere *we read that Centuries later, these people, known as DRUIDS, were greeted by Joseph of Aramathea and his clan, [after the death and Resurrection of Jesus], when they entered upon the Tur of Glastonbury, England, invoking a “treaty”. [The stone is still so honored and in use today for the same intentions of ratification of traties and laws.] The staff which Joseph brought to England with him from Jerusalem, grew into the great thorn-bush which still flowers every Christmas season to this day; and remains venerated by English Christianity. The bush grows no where else but in the Holy Land; and is NOT native to the British Isles. Shortly after the crucifixion of Christ Joseph of Aramathea is said to have travelled from the Holy Land to the south west of England. With him he is said to have carried the Holy Grail. On arriving at Glastonbury Tore the staff he had used throughout his journey he thrust into the hill, this grew into the thorn that is their today.
Later in the Grail romances many places are said to have been the Isle of Avalon, the final resting-place of Arthur. Glastonbury is one of the most famous places to be thought of as Avalon. This information is related from records kept by the monk Columcille/St.Colombais.
Shortly after the crucifixion of Christ Joseph of Aramathea is said to have travelled from the Holy Land to the south west of England.
joseph of arimathea and the legend of glastonbury
Saint Joseph of Arimathea
One of the most charismatic episodes of Christian legend and history concerns Joseph of Arimathea and his claimed founding of the first church upon British soil
Britain had been well known to seafarers of the Mediterranean, and the island is mentioned in a Greek document circa 600 BC. It is believed that the Isles of Scilly provided harbour for ships after rounding Spain towards Britain, and a host of flora found otherwise only in the Meditteranean has been found flourishing there. The tin mines of Cornwall, on the south-west coast of England were well known to the ancients, producing vast amounts over thousands of years, the Cornish deposits being so rich that the mines only eventually closed during the twentieth century.
The uncle of Jesus by the maternal line, Joseph of Arimathea was a member of the Sanhedrin, and who was responsible by bond of law for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion. Afterwards, however, Joseph of Arimathea is held to have departed Palestine under persecution from both unsettled Jews and ever more oppressive Romans, taking the gospel to the furthest lands of the earth as commanded, which in ancient times meant Britain. According to legend, Joseph of Arimathea had a financial stake in the Cornish tin mines, and may even have taken his nephew Jesus there on his merchant travels during the boyhood of Jesus. However, after the crucifixion, Joseph of Arimathea traveled to Britain one last time, to preach and even settle
Apparently, in the company of Lazarus, Mary Magdelene, and the disciple of Jesus named Phillip, the group sailed from Palestine to Marseilles, where Lazarus & Mary stayed, while the others travelled on. At the English Channel, St.Philip sent Joseph, with twelve disciples, to establish Christianity in the most far-flung corner of not only the Roman Empire, but also the perceived world.
English legend has it that Joseph sailed around Land’s End and headed for what was to eventually become Glastonbury in Somerset. Here his boat ran ashore and, together with his followers, he climbed a nearby hill to survey the surrounding land. Having brought with him a staff grown from Christ’s Holy Crown of Thorns
On arriving at Glastonbury Tore/TUR,
the staff he had used throughout his journey he thrust into the hill, where it immediately took miraculous root, and it can be seen there still on Wearyall Hill, where it blossoms everyChristmas.
Joseph met with the local ruler and soon secured himself twelve hides of land at Glastonbury on which to build the first place of Christian worship in Britain, a wattle church named the Vetusta Ecclesia, that Joseph declared should always be attended by twelve followers.
Joseph of Arimathea is supposedly buried upon Glastonbury Tor, the name of the hill upon which the first English parish-church and chapel were built. According to legend, two vials, containing Jesus’ sweat and blood, can also be found there, intended originally as relics for the Altar when he was to perform Communion Mass in Glastonbury. Later in centuries, the original church and chapel were expanded to become a monastery, until the Abbey was dissolved by HENRY VIII in 1539, during the English Reformation. Glastonbury is one of the most famous places to be thought of as Avalon.—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-
*: Doris Charriere’s study,Tamar the Tender Twig is based upon Biblical and other historical accounts of the life of the Prophet Jeremiah, and Tamar, the daughter of King Zedekiah.Biblical history ends with their exile to Tahpahnes, Egypt, where some believe Jeremiah died a martyr’s death. This novel, however, continues the story as found in the histories and legends of Ireland, where Jeremiah is known as Ollam Fodhla, the learned prophet, and Tamar, as the wife of King Heremon. Through their posterity come the kings and queens of Ireland, Scotland and England, including today’s Queen Elizabeth II. This tender romance of young royals caught up in the turmoil of the dark days of the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BCentwines the reader in their struggle to survive against savage seas and ancient pagan cultures, as they and the prophet establish a Golden Age in Ireland.a vivid portrait of the far reaches of the Roman Empire and of the life and times of Joseph of Arimathea. In a postscript to this lengthy work, Ripley notes that little is known about Joseph except that he was wealthy and gave his own tomb for the burial of Jesus. Basing her plot on the legend that Joseph was a seaman and tin trader who brought Christianity to England, Ripley weaves the tale of a farmer’s son whose passion for the sea carries him to prominence and power while still young. Joseph of Arimathea is the uncle of Jesus of Nazareth (through Jesus’ adopted father, another “Joseph”), Joseph of Aramathea becomes a wealthy Jewish “tin-merchant”-seaman. Much of the story centers around the time preceding the birth of Christ when Joseph amasses a fortune from his love of the sea. Ripley relates the story of Joseph of Arimathea, beginning when he runs away from home at the age of 12. His father is a bitter man who wants to keep his son safe on the farm in Arimathea. (His own father had been murdered by the Romans by order of Herod). The adventures of young Joseph as he learns to be a sailor are marvelous as is the background. The Mediterranean world ruled by Rome comes to life and you are absolutely there. Not content with that, we also travel on a secret mission to Great Britain for tin, but the author obviously loves the politics of Rome. In his early years, Joseph brought his young nephew Jesus with him, as a tin-merchant, to the British shores, quite often. He marries his true love, Sarah, when she is 12 years old; their child, born crippled, ultimately leads Joseph back to to his nephew Jesus as an adult “preacher”who heals Joseph’s crippled daughter. Soon after, Joseph hears of His crucifixion; and, in a beautifully rendered scene, removes the body from the cross. Ripley relates his lifelong love affair with his first wife (even after he remarries). These are startling, often violent times, when the slightest deviation from religious law requires the sacrificing of live animals and when political deception regularly results in the deaths of hundreds. Ripley details his friendships with King Herod and Augustus Caesar, and Joseph’s decision to preach the teachings of Christ throughout the Roman Empire. Ripley relates his establishment of the very first Christian settlement with his daughter in ancient Britain among the Celts and their Druid priests [who were decendants of Jeremiah’s clan and his step-daughter Tamar (the sole-surviving daughter of Zedekiah, the wicked Israelite King) ]. The dialogue contains concentrated doses of religious sentimentality when Joseph and his daughter begin their preaching. Joseph’s daugher marries the High Druidic Priest. Ripley creates several inspired historical cameos (Herod, Pontius Pilate, Salome) and skillfully incorporates a wealth of visual and architectural, as well as religious, political and social, detail into her engrossing story.
Monastacism brought to life
Concerning “TARA” / “TARA’s HALLS”
The Name first arrived in Scotland from the annuls of an Irish monk named Columcille/St. Columbais. who was a tribal chieftain who converted to being a monastic novice, and eventually missionary to Scotland, . He was a very human saint, baring his faults as well as lauding his accomplishments. Of course there is conjecture involved in any such legend, but John Desjarlais does a marvelous job of making Columcille come alive — you can almost hear him speak as if you are part of the crowd around Brude. His preaching is impressive, and the power of almighty God evident in the conversions he inspires. The description of Ireland and Scotland at the time is so detailed you can nearly smell the animal hides and hear the creak of the curragh crossing the open waters toward Iona, and almost see the Loch Ness monster as he confronts it. Not to be taken as gospel, this book pleasantly presentsColumba’s life and mission in depth, and I must admit I came away impressed as well as educated.
ST. COLUMBAIS/Columcille /COLOMBA was an Abbot of Iona, b. at Garten, County Donegal, Ireland, 7 December, 521; d. 9 June, 597. He belonged to the Clan O’Donnell, and was of royal descent. His father’s name was Fedhlimdh and that of his mother Eithne. On his father’s side he was great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish king of the fourth century. His baptismal name was Colum, which signifies a dove, hence the latinized form Columba. It assumes another form in Colum-cille, the suffix meaning “of the Churches”. He wasbaptized at Tulach-Dubhglaise, now Temple-Douglas, by a priest named Cruithnechan, who afterwards became his tutor or foster-father. When sufficiently advanced in letters he entered the monastic school of Moville under St. Finnian who had studied at St. Ninian’s “Magnum Monasterium” on the shores of Galloway. Columba at Moville monastic life and received thediaconate. In the same place his sanctity first manifested itself by miracles. By his prayers, tradition says, he converted water into wine for the Holy Sacrifice (Adam., II, i). Having completed his training at Moville, he travelled southwards into Leinster, where he became a pupil of an aged bard named Gemman. On leaving him, Columba entered the monastery ofClonard, governed at that time by Finnian, a remarkable, like his namesake of Moville, for sanctity and learning. Here he imbibed the traditions of the Welsh Church, for Finnian had been trained in the schools of St. David. Here also he became one those twelve Clonard disciples known in subsequent history as the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. About this same time he was promoted to the priesthood by Bishop Etchen of Clonfad. The story that St. Finnian wished Columba to be consecrated bishop, but through a mistake only priest’s orders were conferred, is regarded by competent authorities as the invention of a later age (Reeves, Adam., 226).
Another preceptor of Columba was St. Mobhi, whose monastery at Glasnevin was frequented by such famous men as St. Canice, St. Comgall, and St. Ciaran. A pestilence which devastated Ireland in 544 caused the dispersion of Mobhi’s disciples, and Columba returned to Ulster, the land of his kindred. The following years were marked by the foundation of several important monasteries, Derry, Durrow, and Kells. Derry and Durrow were always specially dear to Columba. While at Derry it is said that he planned a pilgrimage to Rome andJerusalem, but did not proceed farther than Tours. Thence he brought a copy of those gospels that had lain on the bosom of St. Martin for the space of 100 years. This relic was deposited in Derry (Skene, Celtic Scotland, II, 483). Columba left Ireland and passed over into Scotland in 563. The motives for this migration have been frequently discussed. Bede simply says: “Venit de Hibernia . . . praedicaturus verbum Dei” (H. E., III, iv); Adarnnan: “pro Christo perigrinari volens enavigavit” (Praef., II). Later writers state that his departure was due to the fact that he had induced the clan Neill to rise and engage in battle against King Diarmait at Cooldrevny in 561. The reasons alleged for this action of Columba are: (1) The king’s violation of the right of sanctuary belonging to Columba’s person as a monk on the occasion of the murder of Prince Curnan, the saint’s kinsman; (2) Diarmait’s adverse judgment concerning the copy Columba had secretly made of St. Finnian’s psalter. Columba is said to have supported by his prayers the men of the North who were fighting while Finnian did the same for Diarmait’s men. The latter were defeated with a loss of three thousand. Columba’s conscience smote him, and he had recourse to his confessor, St. Molaise, who imposed this severe penance: to leave Ireland and preach the Gospel so as to gain as many souls to Christ as lives lost at Cooldrevny, and never more to look upon his native land. Some writers hold that these are legends invented by the bards and romancers of a later age, because there is no mention of them by the earliest authorities (O’Hanlon, Lives of the Ir. Saints, VI, 353). Cardinal Moranaccepts no other motive than that assigned by Adamnan, “a desire to carry the Gospel to a pagan nation and to win souls to God“. (Lives of Irish Saints in Great Britain, 67). Archbishop Healy, on the contrary, considers that the saint did incite to battle, and exclaims: “O felix culpa . . . which produced so much good both for Erin and Alba (Schools and Scholars, 311).
Columba was in his forty-fourth year when he departed from Ireland. He and his twelve companions crossed the sea in a currach of wickerwork covered with hides. They landed at Iona on the eve of Pentecost, 12 May, 563. The island, according to Irish authorities, was granted to the monastic colonists by King Conall of Dalriada, Columba’s kinsman. Bede attributes the gift to the Picts (Fowler, p. lxv). It was a convenient situation, being midway between his countrymen along the western coast and the Picts of Caledonia. He and his brethren proceeded at once to erect their humble dwellings, consisting of a church, refectory, and cells, constructed of wattles and rough planks. After spending some years among the Scots of Dalriada, Columba began the great work of his life, the conversion of the Northern Picts. Together with St. Comgall and St. Canice (Kenneth) he visited King Brude in his royal residence near Inverness. Admittance was refused to the missionaries, and the gates were closed and bolted, but before the sign of the cross the bolts flew back, the doors stood open, and the monksentered the castle. Awe-struck by so evident a miracle, the king listened to Columba with reverence; and was baptized. The people soon followed the example set them, and thus was inaugurated a movement that extended itself to the whole of Caledonia. Opposition was not wanting, and it came chiefly from the Druids, who officially represented the paganism of the nation.
The thirty-two remaining years of Columba’s life were mainly spent in preaching the Christian Faith to the inhabitants of the glens and wooded straths of Northern Scotland. His steps can be followed not only through the Great Glen, but eastwards also, into Aberdeenshire. The “Book of Deer” (p. 91) tells us how he and Drostan came, as God had shown them to Aberdour in Buchan, and how Bede, a Pict, who was high steward of Buchan, gave them the town in freedom forever. The preaching of the saint was confirmed by many miracles, and he provided for the instruction of his converts by the erection of numerous churches and monasteries. One of his journeys brought him to Glasgow, where he met St. Mungo, the apostle of Strathclyde. He frequently visited Ireland; in 570 he attended the synod of Drumceatt, in company with the Scottish King Aidan, whom shortly before he had inaugurated successor of Conall of Dalriada. When not engaged in missionary journeys, he always resided at Iona. Numerous strangers sought him there, and they received help for soul and body. From Iona he governed those numerous communities in Ireland and Caledonia, which regarded him as their father and founder. This accounts for the unique position occupied by the successors of Columba, who governed the entire province of the Northern Picts although they had received priest’s orders only. It was considered unbecoming that any successor in the office of Abbot of Ionashould possess a dignity higher than of the founder. The bishops were regarded as being of a superior order, but subject nevertheless to the jurisdiction of the abbot. At Lindisfarne themonks reverted to the ordinary law and were subject to a bishop (Bede, H.E., xxvii).
Columba is said never to have spent an hour without study, prayer, or similar occupations. When at home he was frequently engaged in transcribing. On the eve of his death he was engaged in the work of transcription. It is stated that he wrote 300 books with his own hand, two of which, “The Book of Durrow” and the psalter called “The Cathach”, have been preserved to the present time. The psalter enclosed in a shrine, was originally carried into battle by the O’Donnells as a pledge of victory. Several of his compositions in Latin and Irish have come down to us, the best known being the poem “Altus Prosator”, published in the “Liber Hymnorum”, and also in another form by the late Marquess of Bute. There is not sufficient evidence to prove that the rule attributed to him was really his work.
In the spring of 597 he knew that his end was approaching. On Saturday, 8 June, he ascended the hill overlooking his monastery and blessed for the last time the home so dear to him. That afternoon he was present at Vespers, and later, when the bell summoned the community to the midnight service, he forestalled the others and entered the church without assistance. But he sank before the altar, and in that place breathed forth his soul to God, surrounded by his disciples. This happened a little after midnight between the 8th and 9th of June, 597. He was in the seventy-seventh year of his age. The monks buried him within the monastic enclosure. After the lapse of a century or more his bones were disinterred and placed within a suitable shrine. But as Northmen and Danes more than once invaded the island, the relics of St. Columba were carried for purposes of safety into Ireland and deposited in the church of Downpatrick. Since the twelfth century history is silent regarding them. His books and garments were held in veneration at Iona, they were exposed and carried inprocession, and were the means of working miracles (Adam., II, xlv). His feast is kept in Scotland and Ireland on the 9th of June. In the Scottish Province of st Andrews and Edinburgh there is a Mass and Office proper to the festival, which ranks as a double of the second class with an octave. He is patron of two Scottish dioceses Argyle and the Isles and Dunkeld. According to tradition St. Columba was tall and of dignified mien. Adamnan says: “He was angelic in appearance, graceful in speech, holy in work” (Praef., II). His voice was strong, sweet, and sonorous capable at times of being heard at a great distance. He inherited the ardent temperament and strong passions of his race. It has been sometimes said that he was of an angry and vindictive spirit not only because of his supposed part in the battle of Cooldrevny but also because of irritant related by Adamnan (II, xxiii sq.) But the deeds that roused his indignation were wrongs done to others, and the retribution that overtook the perpetrators was rather predicted than actually invoked. Whatever faults were inherent in his nature he overcame and he stands before the world conspicuous for humility and charity not only towards has brethren, but towards strangers also. He was generous and warm-hearted, tender and kind even to dumb creatures. He was ever ready to sympathize with the joys and sorrows of others. His fasts and vigils were carried to a great extent. The stone pillow on which he slept is said to be still preserved in Iona. His chastity of body and purity of mind are extolled by all his biographers. Notwithstanding his wonderful austerities, Adamnan assures us he was beloved by all, “for a holy joyousness that ever beamed from his countenance revealed the gladness with which the Holy Spirit filled his soul“. (Praef., II.)
Influence, and attitude towards Rome
He was not only a great missionary saint who won a whole kingdom to Christ, but he was a statesman, a scholar, a poet, and the founder of numerous churches and monasteries. His name is dear to Scotsmen and Irishmen alike. And because of his great and noble work even non-Catholics hold his memory in veneration. For the purposes of controversy it has been maintained some that St. Columba ignored papal supremacy, because he entered upon his mission without the pope’s authorization. Adamnan is silent on the subject; but his work is neither exhaustive as to Columba’s life, nor does it pretend to catalogue the implicit and explicit belief of his patron. Indeed, in those days a mandate from the pope was not deemed essential for the work which St. Columba undertook. This may be gathered from the words of St. Gregory the Great, relative to the neglect of the British clergy towards the pagan Saxons (Haddan and Stubbs, III, 10). Columba was a son of the Irish Church, which taught from the days of St. Patrick that matters of greater moment should be referred to the Holy See for settlement. St. Columbanus, Columba’s fellow-countryman and fellow-churchman, asked for papal judgment (judicium) on the Easter question; so did the bishops and abbots of Ireland. There is not the slightest evidence to prove that St. Columba differed on this point from his fellow-countrymen. Moreover, the Stowe Missal, which, according to the best authority, represents the Mass of the Celtic Church during the early part of the seventh century, contains in its Canon prayers for the pope more emphatic than even those of the Roman Liturgy. To the further objection as to the supposed absence of the cultus of Our Lady, it may be pointed out that the same Stowe Missal contains before its Canon the invocation “Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis”, which epitomizes all Catholic devotion to the Blessed Virgin. As to the Easter difficulty Bede thus sums up the reasons for the discrepancy: “He [Columba] left successors distinguished for great charity, Divine love, and strict attention to the rules of discipline following indeed uncertain cycles in the computation of the great festival of Easter, because, far away as they were out of the world, no one had supplied them with the synodal decrees relating to the Paschal observance” (H.E., III, iv). As far as can be ascertained no proper symbolical representation of St. Columba exists. The few attempts that have been made are for the most part mistaken. A suitable pictorial representation would exhibit him, clothed in the habit and cowl usually worn by the Basilian or Benedictine monks, with Celtic tonsure and crosier. His identity could be best determined by showing him standing near the shell-strewn shore, with currach hard by, and the Celtic cross and ruins of Iona in the background.
circa 12,000 BC Basques were in the European-Mediterannean (ie. Corsica and the Pyranées coast of modern France). Upon the end of the iceage, they headed north and north-east, some to Basque country, others to the Black Sea region (before its innudation of the Bosphorus) and south-east to the area known today as Gobekli Tepe. Eventually those of the Basque country settled into British Isles. Many did not remain in those Isles; but also fled south-eastward, joining their fore-brethern into the Anatolian hills as warlords (to eventually become the mighty “Hittites”). From these Hittites sprang the Biblical Abraham, Lot and his clan. Centuries later this offshoot clan started a dynasty in Eqypt beginning with Joseph (Yuha) the Visier, son of Isreal. They lived at Avaris with the Trojans and in Goshen. They became known as the Hyskos Kings. Under Ahkanaten /Moses, most of these peoples exited into the Sinai Desert. Some migrated back to Crete. Eventually the majority crossed over into the Lands of Canaan, becoming, in time, the conquering Jewish dynasty of Sheherd Kings under David.
Later, they almost re-conquered pharohnic Egypt in the period under Ramses 11, in the Battle of Kadesh.
Polemical Investigations into the Rise of Judeo-Christianity
In Egyptian, the name Michael is makel, meaning “blue.”
The name refers directly to the god Set. And Set had been the original god of the Hyksos/Hebrew dynasty who later became followers of Akhenaton and his Atonists. [the flag of England contains the Setian red cross and blue background.] The pharaonic crown of Lower Egypt, the area dominated by the Hyksos, was known as the Deshret or “red crown.” Ergo, it is not St. George who is the patron saint of England, but Set of the Hyksos. In general terms whenever the code term “red” is used in the Old Testament, it denotes the Hyksos dynasty. Joseph (recorded as being the “dream analyst” of Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV), who later became the Chief Minister-Overseer /Vizier Yuya (during the Hyksos line of pharaohs). Akhenaten’s maternal grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical Joseph. Yuya had strong connections to the city of Akhmin in Upper Egypt, which is indicated in his title “Overseer of the Cattle of Min at Akhmin”.
was, in addition to being a Vizier, also a Joseph (“Father of the Lord”), where “Joseph” is actually a title, or job description. Clearly, then, Yuya was an Israelite, someone in the royal circles of said Israelites, and from a long line of such. As will become even more apparent in later generations, the Israelites were fond of naming patriarchs after such luminaries as Joseph, Abraham, Isaac, et al. Thus it might be assumed that Yuya’s heritage would be primarily from the Seth line. Egyptian tomb inscriptions usually relate, in one way or another, to the godhead under which the occupant was placed in life, using such deiform names as Ra, Amen and Ptah. In this case, the unusual tomb inscriptions of the grand vizier do not relate to any known god of Egypt; they reveal instead such names as Ya-ya and Yu-ya – phonetically, Iouiya, which is akin to Yaouai, a variant of
Yahweh : From these inscriptions, the Vizier has become personally known as Yuya, and this is of particular interest because his grandson, Pharaoh Akhenaten, later developed the ‘One God’ concept in Egypt.— Laurence Gardner; Genesis of the Grail Kings
This would suggest some intermarriages between the two lines during the 400 year hiatus of the Israelites in Egypt (and during which the records of which did not apparently survive).
The one things that is now becoming clear is that the Israelites in Egypt were not slaves, but were royalty (and treated like royalty), until the extreme excesses of Akhenaten (Moses)… and to a less extent, Smenkhkare (Aaron), and Aye (Kheperkheprure) [the latter the son of Tuya and Yuya]… as the Israelites came into all together too much power as non-Egyptians as the native Egyptians could bear. In other words, things went bad for the Israelites beginning primarily with Moses… and then the Exodus came about when Moses went back to pull the extended family out of Egypt.
In addition, according to Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings (pages 183-184), the name, Yuya, was phonetically akin to variants of Yahweh. “the vizier had become personally known as Yuya, and… and his grandson, Pharaoh Akhenaten, later developed the ‘One God’ concept in Egypt.” Yuya was in fact “the principal minister” for Tuthmosis IV and his son, Amenhotep III. “His tomb was discovered in 1905, along with that of his wife, Tuya (the Asenath), and the mummies of Yuya and Tuya are among the very best preserved in the Cairo Museum.” “Clearly, this couple were of tremendous importance in their day.” It is also clear that “Yuya was not only the viceroy and primary state official, but was also the father of a pharaoh, just as related in Genesis (45:8).” [The reference is to Joseph, but as a Joseph, Yuya would be able to claim such an honor… in this case as a grandfather to a pharaoh.]
“Yuya’s family was very influential, holding inherited land in the Egyptian delta, and he was a powerful military leader. Anen, the elder son of Yuya and Tuya, also rose to high office under Amenhotep III as Chancellor of Lower Egypt, High Priest of Heliopolis and Divine Father of the nation. But it was his youngest son, Aye, who held the special distinction ‘Father of the God’ and became pharaoh in 1352 BC — as did other descendants of Yusuf-Yuya, including the now famous Tutankhamen.”
“We are, therefore, into the realm of the original covenant of kingship made with Isaac. His son Esau may have sold his birthright to his younger twin brother Jacob-Israel (whose descendants became kings of Judah), but now we discover that, through Tuya and Yuya,descendants of Esau did indeed become pharaohs of Egypt. These particular pharaohs have become known as the ‘Amarna Kings’: they were Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamen and Aye, who ruled consecutively c. 1367 – 1348 BC.” [And as it turned out, this same chain of pharaohs ruled over the final years of the 18th Dynasty. One might suspect they were the reason for its end.]
“If the covenant were to be taken literally, it would appear that the selling of the birthright by Esau to Jacob had no effect whatever; it was not until after the Amarna period that the lines of Esau and Jacob were united through marriage, subsequently descending to the Davidic kings of Judah.”
Generation No. 49
1. Amenhotep III (Nubmaatre)
 Tuthmosis IV (=Mutemwiya)  Amenhotep II (=Tiaa)  Tuthmosis III (=Meryetre-Hatshepsut)  Tuthmosis II (=Iset)  Tuthmosis I (=Mutnofret)  Amenhotep I (=Ahmose-Meritamon)  Ahmose I (=Ahmose-Nefertari)  Missing Generations [33 – 41] Amenemhet IV (=Sobeknefru, d. of Igrath)  Amenemhet III (=Aat)  Senusret III (=Mereret)  Senusret II (=Nofret)  Amenemhet II (=Keminebu)  Senusret I (=Nefru)  Tohwait (=Amenemhet I)  Nefert (=Senusret of Elephantine)  Missing Generations [15-24] Ham (=Neelata-mek)  Tubal Cain (=Nin-banda)  Lamech (=Zillah)  Methusael (=Edna?)  Mehujael (=?)  Irad (=Baraka?)  Enoch (=Edna?)  Cain (=Luluwa)  Enki and Eve  Enki and Nin-khursag  Anu and Antu (OR Ki)  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
1) Tiye (Tiya), a great queen known as a proponent of monotheism.
2) ilukhepa, first of several diplomatic brides and daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni
3) Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni
children (by Tiye)
Thutmose, who predeceased his father
Amenhotep IV, aka Akhenaten, aka Moses
Smenkhkare, who briefly succeeded Akhenaten, and who was depicted as a woman
Sitamun, elevated to the office of “great royal wife” during Amenhotep’s last decade *
Iset (Isis), also elevated to the office of “great royal wife” *
*The lineage of the royal line of Egypt was traced through its women and the religion of Ancient Egypt was interwoven inexorably with the male’s right to rule. It must be stressed that Egypt’s theological paradigm, therefore, encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him. The goddess Hathor herself was related as first the mother [aka Tiamat?] and later wife and daughter of Ra [aka Marduk, son of Enki?] when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Hence, Amenhotep III’s marriage to his daughter, Sitamun, was somewhat typical, even if Sitamun may have actually been the youngest daughter of Amenhotep III’s father Thutmose IV — thus making her the half-sister of Amenhotep III and not his daughter.
[This matriarchal influence on royal legitimacy is very, very important! In other words, Joseph is not particularly needed relative to Mary… In this case, Sitamun also provided the matriarchal lineage to Nefertiti (the future wife of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who was destined for fame and winner of beauty pageants thousands of years later. The immediate offspring of Nefertiti included Merytaten (who married Smenkhkare — aka Aaron— and Princess Scota who hooked up with Niul of Scythia).
Tiye was descended from Yuya and Tiuyu, whose other children included a future pharaoh: Kheperkheprure Ay, as well as Anen. Importantly, Tiye may have bridged the gap between the Cain and Seth lines, such that her child was a pivotal figure in the ultimate royal lines. If not, she could always count on her grand daughter, Kiya-tasherit, to definitively bridge the gap… the bridge over troubled waters, in the latter case.
Meanwhile, Tiye’s monotheism — which she in turn passed onto her son, Akhenaten — was probably derived from those Hebrews who had been… well, let’s just say… “residing” in Egypt. The result was a major conflict with tradition and priests. Tiye, as a mother, might not have set the best possible example for her impressionable son to follow.]
WhenThutmose IV died, his son Amenhotep III married his sister . Once he had secured his throne, he also married Tiye, the daughter of Chief Minister Yuya [believed to be the biblical patriarch Joseph [Hebrew Bible], son of Jacob.
Because the Israelites were gaining too much power in Egypt and because Yuya, a foreigner, had been governor for so long, it was decided thatno children of Tiye would be allowed inherit the throne of Egypt, but instead should be killed at birth. Tiye’s family lived in the “Land of Goshen” , so she went to have her baby at her summer palace. Her son was put in a reed basket to float downstream to the house of Yuya’s half-brother, Levi ….
So did Akhenaten (Moses) have a brother who was himself a pharaoh…Indeed he did…his name was Smankhkare**. He was the grandson of Yusuf-Yuya the Vizier, and the son of Aye (the brother of Akhenaten’s birth-mother, Tiye). Correctly stated, this pharaoh’s name was Smenkh-ka-ra (‘Vigourous is the Soul of Ra’). Alternatively, since Ra was the state sun god of the Heliopolis House of Light, called On, Pharaoh Smenkh-ka-ra was also Smenkh-ka-ra-on, from the phonetic ending of which derives ‘Aaron’.
— Laurence Gardner; Genesis of the Grail Kings
(page 189): Pharaoh Amenhotep III then suffered a period of ill health and, because there was no direct male heir to the royal house [Amenhotep III and his wife, Sitamun, for example, had failed to produce a male heir], young Amenhotep married his half-sister Nefertiti in order to rule as co-regent during this difficult time. When their father died, he succeeded as Amenhotep IV by virtue of his marriage to Nefertiti. Were it not for this marriage, the eighteenth dynasty would have expired at their father’s death.
Because of his part-Israelite upbringing, Amenhotep IV (sometimes called Amenophis IV) could not accept the Egyptian deities and their myriad idols, so he developed the notion of Aten, an omnipotent god with no image, who was represented by a solar disc with downward rays. Aten was not the sun god, however, for the Egyptian sun god was Ra. The name ‘Aten’ was the equivalent of the Hebrew Adon – a title borrowed from the Phoenician and meaning ‘Lord’ – with the familiar ‘Adonai’ meaning ‘my Lord’. At the same time, Amenhotep (‘Amen is Pleased’) changed his name to Akhenaten (‘Glorious Spirit of the Aten’/ “Effective spirit of Aten”); and closed all the temples of the Egyptian gods, making himself very unpopular, particularly with the priests of Ra and with those of the former national deity, Amen.— Laurence Gardner: Genesis of the Grail Kings
— Laurence Gardner; Genesis of the Grail Kings
Akhenaten even moved the capital away from the city of Thebes in an effort to break the influence of that powerful temple and assert his own preferred choice of deities, the local deity of Akhenaten (‘Horizon of Aten’), at the site known today as Amarna, while suppressing the worship of the Amun deity.
[In many respects there has always been a binding agreement between rulers and the respective religious hierarchies for millennia. Rulers are allowed to use religion to control the masses (commoners), but must in turn allow the priests their own form of power (mostly to con, embezzle, or otherwise extract money from the religiously generous). Rulers who threaten the priests’ “rice bowls” are inherently dispensable.]
According to Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings (pages 79, 87), “Tablets containing Adapa’s story were originally discovered, along with the Enuma elish… in the Egyptian archives of Pharaoh Amenhotep III…” There is also detail found that “a heavenly shem was provided by Enki for the priest-king Atabba when he ascended to meet with the great Anu.” These are just more points of evidence that the royal blood line… from Adam to this 18th Dynasty pharaoh… was still very important.
2. Tiya (Tiye
)  Tuya (=Yuya)  Poti-pherah, priest of Ra (=Zelekha)  Missing Generations [42-46] Muddled Generations [33 – 41] Amenemhet IV (=Sobeknefru, d. of Igrath)  Amenemhet III (=Aat)  Senusret III (=Mereret)  Senusret II (=Nofret)  Amenemhet II (=Keminebu)  Senusret I (=Nefru)  Tohwait (=Amenemhet I)  Nefert (=Senusret of Elephantine)  Missing Generations [15-24] Ham (=Neelata-mek)  Tubal Cain (=Nin-banda)  Lamech (=Zillah)  Methusael (=Edna?)  Mehujael (=?)  Irad (=Baraka?)  Enoch (=Edna?)  Cain (=Luluwa)  Enki and Eve  Enki and Nin-khursag  Anu and Antu (OR Ki)  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
According to Laurence Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings (page 186), when Tuthmosis IV died, his son Amenhotep III “married his infant sister Sitamun (as was the pharonic tradition) so that he could inherit the throne.” “Shortly afterwards, in order to have an adult wife as well, Amenhotep also married Tiye, the daughter of [his chief minister] Yusuf-Yuya. It was decreed, however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne and, because of the length of her father’s governorship, there was a general fear that his Israelite relatives were gaining too much power in Egypt.” [So much for the “bondage and hard labor” bit; with Egyptians becoming a bit more nervous over the power and influence of the Israelites.]
Tiye had a son, Tuthmosis, and in fact he did not survive (with a whip bearing his name being found later in the tomb of Tutankhamen). Based upon the evidence at hand (as well as entombed), Tiye concluded that the ban on her sons was for real, and when she became pregnant again, she took precautions. During her pregnancy, she moved to Goshen, where she could reside in her “confinement” among the somewhat more friendly Israelites. There Tiye had a her brother’s wife, Tey, a daughter of the house of Levi, nurse her son. As far as an outsider could tell, Tey was nursing her own child, and poor Tiye had once again failed to generate a possible heir to the Egyptian throne. [Considering Tiye’s radical religion of monotheism, she was wise to avoid antagonizing the Religious Right of Egypt.] “Tiye’s son Amenhotep (born c. 1394 BC) was later educated at Heliopolis by the Egyptian priests of Ra… and in his teenage years he went to live at Thebes. By that time, his mother had become more influential than the senior queen, Sitamun, who had never borne a son and heir to the pharaoh, only a daughter who was called Nefertiti.” [In fact, Tey may have been Nefertiti’s mother as well!]
“Pharaoh Amenhotep III then suffered a period of ill-health and, because there was no direct male heir to the royal house, young Amenhotep married his half-sister Nefertiti in order to rule as co-regent during this difficult time. When their father died, he succeeded as Amenhotep IVby virtue of his marriage to Nefertiti. Were it not for this marriage, the eighteenth dynasty would have expired at their father’s death.”
Not surprisingly, Tiye probably had a great deal of influence over Amenhotep IV… soon to be renamed Akhenaten (Egyptian)… and known to the Israelites as Moses. Sometimes it pays to have an alias.
SOURCES FOR Generation No. 50 :
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) MOSES
 Amenhotep III (=Tiye)  Tuthmosis IV (=Mutemwiya)  Amenhotep II (=Tiaa)  Tuthmosis III (=Meryetre-Hatshepsut)  Tuthmosis II (=Iset)  Tuthmosis I (=Mutnofret)  Amenhotep I (=Ahmose-Meritamon)  Ahmose I (=Ahmose-Nefertari)  Missing Generations [33 – 41] Amenemhet IV (=Sobeknefru, d. of Igrath)  Amenemhet III (=Aat)  Senusret III (=Mereret)  Senusret II (=Nofret)  Amenemhet II (=Keminebu)  Senusret I (=Nefru)  Tohwait (=Amenemhet I)  Nefert (=Senusret of Elephantine)  Missing Generations [15-24] Ham (=Neelata-mek)  Tubal Cain (=Nin-banda)  Lamech (=Zillah)  Methusael (=Edna?)  Mehujael (=?)  Irad (=Baraka?)  Enoch (=Edna?)  Cain (=Luluwa)  Enki and Eve  Enki and Nin-khursag  Anu and Antu (OR Ki)  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
1) Nefertiti (daughter of Amenhotep III and Sitamun OR Kheperkheprure Aye and Tey)
2) Kiya (Mery-khiba) (Mery-amom) MIRIAM (daughter of Amenhotep III)
3) Zipporah — who later marries Jethro, Lord High Priest of Midian
(Jethro is descended from Reuel, son of Esau and Bashemath)
(Great Royal Wife late in his reign; married Smenkhkare
Ankhesenpaaten, later Queen of Tutankhamen
[All three of these daughters may also have been Akhenaten’s consorts.]
? (However, Smenkhkare may have been Aye’s son)
Tutankhaten (Tutankhamun) (Nebkheperture)
Both Merytaten and Ankhesenpaaten apparently had children – Merytaten-ta-sherit and Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit, respectively.Merytaten and Smenkhkare (aka Aaron, Zadok and Pharaoh) created a line of descent that included Princess Scota, who married Niul of Scythia. [The tendency of intra-royal marriages among diverse cultures is really quite impressive. It’s perhaps one of the primary means by which constant warfare among nations is reduced, if not in some cases eliminated.] Note also that Smenkhkare’s fatherKheperkheprure (Aye) was brother to Tiye, and that both were of the royal Israeli line. Accordingly, if anyone wonders why the Egyptians might have been ever so suspicious of the local Hebrews and their intentions… perhaps it was their successful penetration into the royal Egyptian line of Pharaohs.
Akhenaten, making himself very unpopular, particularly with the priests of Ra and with those of the former national deity, Amun, closed all the temples of the Egyptian gods and built new temples to Aten. He also ran a household that was distinctly domestic – quite different from the kingly norm in ancient Egypt. One many fronts he became unpopular – particularly with the priests of the former national deity Amun (or Amen) and of the sun god Ra (or Re). Plots against his life proliferated. Loud were the threats of armed insurrection if he did not allow the traditional gods to be worshipped alongside the faceless Aten. but also there were many plots against his life and threats of armed insurrection if he did not allow the traditional gods to be worshipped alongside the faceless Aten. Akhenaten refused and was eventually forced to abdicate in short-term favour of his cousin Smenkhkare, who was succeeded by Tutankhaten, Akhenaten’s son by his deputy queen, Kiya…Tutankhaten was obliged to change his name to Tutankhamun (thereby denoting a renewed allegiance to Amun/Amen, rather than to Aten)…Akhenaten, meanwhile, was banished from Egypt in about 1361 BC, althought to his supporters he remained very much the rightful monarch…he was still regarded by them as the royal Mose or Mosis.
Meanwhile, Smenkhkare, Akhenaten’s successor and/or co-ruler for the last years of his reign, is sometimes described as being a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten. However, we will assume that Smenkhkare was the son of Tey (Jochelbed) [the Senior Queen of Kheperkheprure (Aye)] and the feeding mother to Akhenaten (Moses) and Nefertiti. [One might not think that a “feeding mother’ would be all that important… but similar to Nin-khursag’s carrying the fetus from a Eljo woman, the need for royal blood nourishing upcoming royalty is absolutely paramount. In this case, however, note that Tey (Jochebed) is very likely an Israelite, so that the Israeli influence in the Egyptian pharaoh line is still very much in evidence.]
BTW, twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, Tiye is still mentioned in inscriptions as Queen and beloved of the King. It has been suggested that Akhenaten and his mother acted as consorts to each other until her death. This would have been considered incest, even in ancient times. Supporters of this theory (notably
Immanuel Velikovsky) consider Akhenaten to be the historical model of the legendary King Oedipus of Thebes (the Greek city; not the Egyptian?) and Tiye the model for his mother/wife Jocasta.
After Akhenaten’s dethronement, and the restoration of traditional religious practice, Akhenaten and his immediate successors were ignored and excised from history by later rulers. Akhenaten himself is usually referred to as ‘the enemy’ Nefertiti also appears beside the king in actions usually reserved for a Pharaoh, suggesting that she attained unusual power for a queen.
[Considering the possibility of Tiye and Akhenaten being active consorts, and Tiye’s influence over Akhenaten’s sufficient attempt to completely subvert Egyptian religion into a strange, foreign (Hebrew) manner…This in fact might have been Nefertiti’s possible power base.]
the story of Akhenaten’s 12-year monotheistic regime with that of Moses as narrated in the Bible:
The Lords Of Avaris follows also the work of James Cameron and Simcha Jacoboviciwith the Troy theses OF THE HEBREW/ Semitic PEOPLES LIVING IN Egypt at the period of the Great Exodus…also the latest archaeologicical digs in the areas.
On the plus side he makes clear how complex the eruption sequence of Santorini (Thera) was, and offers a plausible (but as yet unverified) date of 1190-1210BC for the final cataclysmic eruption. There is archaeological evidence in support of this. Sadly he does not refer to research work on the site of Troy and the Scamander plain that shows that it is was a very large and complex site and probably the source of the Atlantis myth but this is a minor criticism. A further minor criticism is his brief treatment of the origins of the Etruscans and Romans, but then these could have been books in themselves. He does deal with the Hyksoss very well and casts much new light on this hitherto difficult group.
In all the new chronology has taken us to more accurate and reliable dates for events and people in the “Bronze age” and shows just how important this period is in the development of modern western culture. Rohl has done general readers a great service through these books and helped to dispel modern academic myths about the past.
Troy is placed in it’s true historic context and Homer is put back in his correct historic period. As well as allowing the true founder of the Roman civilisation to be correctly identified as the historically real figure of Aeneas. Along the way he also removes the myth status from the Greek heroes such as Heracles, Perseus, Icarus and Daedalus and places them in their true historic location.
The arguments given and evidence presented wipe a way, with a huge and convincing stroke, the phantom Greek Dark Age, that most archaeologists have an impossible task trying to explain.
It can be heavy going at times due to the detail that Mr Rohl goes into but it is fascinating to see the truth emerge from the mists of time at such a page turning pace (I first read it over 3 days). Now I can revisit the evidence and examine in more detail the excellent reference material provided.
Although his New Chronology may not be 100 percent correct (it is tweak-able) once again Mr Rohl has without doubt proven that the Outdated Chronology, generally accepted by academia, is, in my opinion, 100 percent incorrect.
Simcha Jacobovici. Jacobovici has extensively researched evidence that the Biblical account of the Exodus was real, and concludes that it actually took place in 1500 BCE (during the reign of pharaoh Ahmos I), historically known as the Hyksos Expulsion. The Hyksos people were a Semitic race about whom little is known. But their departure from Egypt, following a long enslavement, along with early writings and other physical evidence, make a strong case that they are the Hebrews of lore. Jacobovici suggests the Exodus is also connected to the catastrophic eruption of the Santorini volcano, which ended the Minoan civilization and triggered a limnic eruption (a surge of carbon dioxide) in the Nile river delta. The latter would have killed the river’s fish but likely chased out all the frogs, a phenomenon that could have been considered one of the famous plagues in the Exodus story. (Jacobovici makes a case for the other so-called plagues also being a consequence of the eruption.) Whatever one’s opinion of The Exodus Decoded as a historical documentary, it is engrossing viewing, shot in some truly exotic locations, often under the highly suspicious eye of Egyptian authorities. Several moments–such as the revelation of a Hyksos slave’s rock carving, pleading with God to be rescued–are astonishing. –Tom Keogh
James Cameron and Simcha Jacobovici, “The Exodus Decoded”The scholar and Genealogist of the Holy Bloodline of Jesus,
Laurence Gardner, has this to say in his book “Bloodline of the Holy Grail”Chapter I: The Bloodline Begins:
It is now generally acknowledged that the opening chapters of the Old Testament do not accurately represent the early history of the world, as they appear to suggest. More precisely, the tell the story of a family – a family that in time became a race comprising various tribes; a race that in turn became the Hebrew nation. If Adam can ever be said to have been the first of a type (notwithstanding the whole of human evolution behind him), then he was certainly the progenitor of the Hebrews and the tribes of Israel.
Two of the most intriguing characters of the Old Testament are Joseph and Moses. Each played an important role in the formation of the Hebrew Nation, and both have historical identities that can be examined quite independently of the Bible. Genesis 41:39-43 tells how Joseph was made Governor of Egypt.
And Pharoah said unto Joseph…Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled; only in that throne will I be greater than thou…and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.
Referring to Moses, Exodus 11:3 informs us similarly that:
Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharoah’s servants, and in the sight of the people.
Yet for all of this status and prominence neither Joseph nor Moses appear in any Egyptian record under either of those names.
David Freeman at Joseph’s Tomb in Shechem
“In the last verses of Genesis it is told how Joseph adjured his relatives to take his bones back to Canaan whenever God should restore them to their original home, and in Joshua 24:32 it is told how his body was indeed brought to Palestine and buried in Shechem. For centuries there was a tomb at Shechem reverenced as the Tomb of Joseph (see photo to left). A few years ago the tomb was opened. It was found to contain a body mummified according to the Egyptian custom, and in the tomb, among other things, was a sword of the kind worn by Egyptian officials.”
— Prophets, Idols and Diggers
book by John Elder
The annals of Rameses II (1304-1237 BC) specify that Semitic people were settled in the land of Goshen. It is further explained that they went there from Canaan for want of food. But why should Rameses’ scribes mention this settlement at Goshen? According to standard Bible chronology the Hebrews went to Egypt some three centuries before the time of Rameses, and made their Exodus in about 1491 BC, long before he came to the throne. So, by virtue of this first-hand scribal record, the standard Bible chronology as generally promotes is seen to be incorrect.
It is traditionally presumed that Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt in the 1720’s BC, and was made Governor by the Pharoah a decade or so later. Afterwards, his father Jacob (Israel) and 70 family members followed him into Goshen to escape the famine in Canaan. Notwithstanding this, Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11 and Number 33:3 all refer to ‘the land of Rameses’ (in Egyptian, ‘the house of Rameses’). This was a complex of grain storehouses built by the Israelites for Rameses II in Goshen some 300 after they were supposed to be there!
It transpires, therefore, that the alternative ‘Jewish Reckoning’ is more accurate that the ‘Standard Chronology’; Joseph went to Egypt not in the early 18th Century BC but in the early 15th Century BC. There he was appointed Chief MInister to Tuthmosis IV (ruled c. 1413-1405 BC). To the Egyptians, however, Joseph the Vizir was known as Yuya, and his story is particularly revealing not just in relation to the Biblical account of Joseph but also in respect of Moses. The Cairo-born historian and linguist Ahmed Osman has made an in-depth study of these personalities in their contemporary Egyptian environment, and his findings are of great significance.
When Pharoah Tuthmosis died, his son married his sibling sister Sitamun (as was the Pharonic tradition) so that he could inherit the throne as Pharoah Amenhotep III. Shortly afterwards he also married Tiye, daughter of the Chief Minister (Joseph/Yuya). It was decreed, however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne. Because of the overall length of her father Joseph’s governorship there was a general fear that the Israelites were gaining too much power in Egypt. So when Tiye became pregnant, the edict was given that her child should be killed at birth if a son. Tiye’s Jewish relatives lived at Goshen, and she herself owned a summer palace a little upstream at Sarw, where she went to have her baby. She did indeed bear a son but the royal midwives conspired with Tiye to float the child downstream in a reed basket to the house of her father’s half-brother Levi.
The boy, Aminadab (born around 1394 BC), was duly educated in the eastern delta country by the Egyptian priests of Ra. In his teenage years he went to live at Thebes. By that time, his mother had acquired more influence than the senior queen, Sitamun, who had never borne a son and heir to the Pharoah, only a daughter who was called Nefertiti. In Thebes, Aminadab accepted the notion of Aten, an omnipresent God who had no image. Aten was thus an equivalent of the Hebrew “Adonai” (a title borrowed from the Phoenician and meaning ‘Lord’) in line with Israelite teachings. At that time Aminadab (Hebrew equivalent of Amenhotep – ‘Amun is pleased’) changed his name to Akhenaten (servant of Aten).
Pharoah Amenhotep then suffered a period of ill health. Because there was no direct male heir to the royal house, Akhenaten married his half-sister Nefertiti in order to rule as co-regent during this difficult time. When in due course Amenhotep III died, Akhenaten was able to succeed as Pharoah – officially called Amenhotep IV.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti had six daughters and a son, Tutankhaten. Akhenaten was eventually forced to abdicate in short-term favour of his cousin Smenkhkare, who was succeeded by Akhenaten’s son Tutankhaten. On taking the throne at the age of about 11, Tutankhaten was obliged to change his name to Tutankhamun. He, in turn, was only to live and rule for a further nine or ten years, meeting his death while still comparatively young.
As Moses grew to adulthood in Egypt, he assumed the title of Tutmoses II as heir to the throne of Egypt, [but when he left Egypt after committing murder, he was replaced, and another man assumed that title. Moses as an adult, as Thutmoses II, prince of Egypt, before he left Egypt for Midian! (Images of statues in various museums support this relationship)]
Moses/Akhenaten, meanwhile, was banished from Egypt. He fled with some retainers to the remote safety of Sanai, taking with him his royal sceptre topped with a brass serpent. To his supporters he remained very much the rightful monarch, the heir to the throne from which he had been ousted, and he was still regarded by them as the Mose, Meses or Mosis (heir/born of) – as in Tuthmosis (born of Tuth) and Rameses (fashioned of Ra).
Evidence from Egypt indicates that Moses (Akhenaten led his people from Pi-Rameses (near modern Kantra) southward, through Sanai, towards Lake Timash. This was extremely marshy territory and, although manageable on foot with some difficulty, any pursuing horses and chariots would have foundered disastrously.
Among the retainers who fled with Moses were the sons and families of Jacob (Israel). Then at the instigation of their leader, they constructed the tabernacle at the foot of Mount Sanai. Once Moses had died, they began their invasion of the country left by their forefathers so long before. But Canaan (Palestine) had changed considerably in the meantime, having been infiltrated by waves of Philistines and Phoenicians. The records tell of great sea battles, and of massive armies marching to war. At length, the Hebrews (under their new leader, Joshua) were successful and, once across the Jordan, they took Jericho from the Canaanites, gaining a real foothold in their traditional Promised Land.
Following Joshua’s death, the ensuing period of rule by appointed ‘judges’ was a catalogue of Jewish disaster until the disparate Hebrew tribes united under their first king, Saul, in about 1055 BC. with the conquest of Palestine (Canaan) as complete as possible, David of Bethlehem – a descendant of Abraham – married Saul’s daughter to become King of Judah (corresponding to half the Palestinian territory). By 1048 BC, he had also acquired Israel (the balance of the territory) becoming overall King of the Jews. The Bloodline of the Holy Grail had begun.
MOSES / Akhenaten
http://www.greatdreams.com/moses.htmATEN= ADENOI or, Aton (Adonai)
Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings and brought you unto Myself – (Exodus 19:4)Moses –
(drawer of the waters) – a name that implies the moon, is a fictive front for the concealed Solar personality – in other words – AkhenatonManetho states that Moses received his priestly education and learned all the wisdom of the Egyptians in the city of Heliopolis, in the Delta, the Biblical city of On…the House of the Sun
– Godfrey HigginsSigmund Freud
pointed out that MOSES WAS AKHENATON – the Bible is not a “Jewish tome”, but an Egyptian one. When we understand the true identity of Moses, we understand also the true authors of the Bible. Yes, surely Akhenaten’s family’s atomization into the greater world, (we are talking about at least five daughters who carried the blood of Nefertiti and Akhenaten) was done with great care. These girls went out and made all atempts to spread Akhenaten’s ideas globally. Of course when Amarna was built, who could Akhenaten call upon, to build the temple of his father? Of course it was Israel or “Joshua and his bunch of stonemasons”. These builder/soldiers created Akhenaten’s city and covered his retreat when it fell, then joined him in exile, along with Jethro’s people and others, as “Moses” rose to lead them.
After Horemheb, there was a massive pandemic which swept through Egypt and which lasted for decades. This was one of the main reasons why Akhenaten had his people wander in the desert. He saw that Amarna would be laid waste by plague anyway. All the talk about Osarseph and the “diseased” people, is simple sour grapes because they died from plague while Akhenaten (like his ancestor Yuya) either had or interpreted a dream, where plague came through Egypt. Naturally after he left, and the disease came, then the people left behind would say “Oh those diseased Amarna people! They caused this!”…
Ultimately, Moses / Akhenaten / Amenhotep IV was exiled and fled to the land of Midian, east of the Sinai penisula. Nefertiti apparently died shortly thereafter. Moses, meanwhile, married Zipporah, the daughter of Lord Jethro, and she bore him two sons. Moses then did the Burning Bush thing and arrangements were made to return to Egypt… and retrieve the Israelites, who had recently (NOT 400 years) been placed in bondage by the new authorities. However, by the time Moses was ready to head home, a whole new regime had begun in Egypt: the 19th dynasty, whose founding pharaoh was Ramses I. And of course, in order to identify himself to the new rulers, Moses was advised to use magic tricks (aka miracles by virtue of divine powers conferred upon him by “I am that I am.”).
Okay you know most of the rest… except maybe for the point that according to Laurence Gardner (Genesis of the Grail Kings), “When the Israelites made their exodus from Egypt, their spiritual leader was not Moses, but Miriam — a queen and high priestess of the pharonic succession.”
the Egyptians expelled the Hyksos by about 1530BC? (Here, with the Egyptians under the command of Pharaoh Amosis (Ahmose), who had begun his reign about 1552BC, this Ahmose being a nephew of Kamose). To expel the Hyksos, it was necessary to ruin Avaris (such ruination ought to produce an archaeologically verifiable date?).
By the time they ousted the Hyksos, the Egyptians had adopted and probably improved the Hyksos’ military technology, the earlier superiority of which was one reason the Hyksos had overrun Egypt. With this success, Ahmose (Amosis) then went for Palestine. Ahmose also took areas from the Nubians (Kushites) and shored up his southern borders near the Second Cataract of the Nile. Ahmose’ Queen was Ahmose-Nefertiti.
Whether the above information about the mysterious Hyksos is accurate or inaccurate, it gives us some dates, reliable or not. If we move down the ladder of a timeframe, we might, depending on whom we read, find that the Hyksos were pacified by Egypt in Canaan between 1550BC and 1450BC. If any suggestion is made in this part of the timeframe, for an Exodus date, it may have been that prior to escaping, Moses took advantage of widespread instability? It would then follow that the Pharaohs of the Oppression and the Exodus will be found within this timeframe, which gives us the earlier Exodus date, around 1450BC.
But does it have to do with anything at all, that one date provided for the explosion of the island of Thera [a date given by Friedrich] is 1500BC-1470BC? (Here, see also, Phillips, Act of God.) And that the explosion of Thera (also known as, Kalliste, also, Santorini) devastated civilisation on Crete? So, one might wonder if the events referred to above happened in coincidental timeframes? (The Greeks are thought by some writers to have come to Crete about 1450BC).
The Great Flood
Thera: now called Santorini, 60 miles north of Crete, called Thera after the first Greek commander to set foot on her after the disaster. It had earlier been called Kalliste, “the most beautiful island”. It was circular, had a 5000 feet high peak, now a lagoon eight miles wide, 200 fathoms deep, so deep, no ship can now anchor there. Thera’s people used eye make-up, and had indoor plumbing, 1000 years before the birth of Rome. About 30,000 people lived on the island, which had a town called Akrotire. According to Freidrich, about 1500BC, Thera suffered probably the most violent explosion in all human history, which destroyed 32 square miles of Thera, four times the area blown away by Krakatoa. Debris covered 115,000 square miles, and a tidal wave some 200-300 feet high hit Crete “at 100 miles per hour”1450BC: Thera blows up. [Mellersh, Friedrich]. Thera’s tidal wave hit Crete about 1500BC-1470BC. (?)
But the second collapse of the Minoan palaces was in 1450BC, and only Knossos on Crete survived that catastrophe. [Friedrich]. Mainland Greeks came to Knossos about 1450BC [Friedrich].
Ian Wilson thinks Tuthmosis III was the Pharaoh resident on the delta at the times Moses departed. His throne had been usurped by Hatshepsut due to the youth of Tuthmosis III. [Ian Wilson, Exodus]. Wilson says Hatshepsut’s reign began well but ended “in mysterious disgrace for her and her first minister Senenmut”. About 1494BC-1482, Tuthmosis I reigns in Egypt. Tuthmosis II reigned from 1494BC. [Tapsell, Aldred]. Queen Hatshepsut (Ma’kare Hashepsowe), 1490BC-1468BC. 1488BC, Hatshepsut establishes herself as a Pharaoh (Mellersh]. 1488BC-1469BC, Hatshepsut decides on internal progress, not foreign adventures; her favourite is Senenmut. [Mellersh].
The supposition arises that once Thera had erupted, and after fire from earthquakes or volcanoes, there arose a tsunami or tidal wave which may have had something to do with the drowning of an Egyptian army bogged in the Reed Sea?
But did any explosion of Thera account for destruction on Crete? This is unsure. Did Theran activity help arouse the plagues of Egypt? And all this 25 years either side of 1450BC? The Theran explosion was perhaps the biggest natural upheaval in the known history of the day. Wilson cites an inscription from Hatshepsut’s time, about an allowing of some immigrants (abomination of the gods) to depart, whence the earth swallowed their footsteps. Goedicke has translated a reference to a directive of Nun, the primeval water, father of fathers. Was the collapse of Thera the fall of Atlantis? Was the tsunami was reason for the Deucalion or Ogyges floods on Greece?
(The Mediterranean is tideless, and the early Church fathers believed that the Greek floods occurred at the time of Moses’ Exodus).
Wilson continues, Hatshepsut’s reign began well but ended “in mysterious disgrace for her and her first minister Senenmut”. Wilson continues, possibly, Senenmut was blamed for chaos on the delta, and halfway through his own reign, Tuthmosis III ordered an obliteration of Hatshepsut’s memory.
date Moses from about 1526BC to 1406BC, with an Exodus date about 1446BC, or, in the time of Tuthmosis III (plus Hatshepsut?). This might make Moses aged about age 80 when confronting Pharaoh in 1446BC? This might make Moses aged five in 1521BC? Packer has Moses born at the time when the Egyptians drove out the Hyksos, 1486BC. A suggested date for Moses fleeing into the wilderness after killing an Egyptian slave driver is about 1446BC
Now, by some available dates, the Hyksos afflicted the Egyptians around 1700BC-1500BC. Some American Protestant Bible scholars prefer a birthdate for Moses around 1526BC. If we are to believe biblical genealogies, one can range forward or backward in time to find approximate dates for Abraham (socio-political upheavals around Ur about 2100BC?). Abraham and Terah probably left Ur after an invasion of Mesopotamia from the West by the Amorites. Were these possibly Amorites from Canaan, Amorites who invaded about 2000BC? [Bacon, Atlas]. The Hebrews settled in Egypt about 1800BC, possibly.
Perhaps, the problem of the dating of Moses begins with Joseph? If we assume that Joseph went into Egypt in about 1850BC-1800BC (by Bimson’s redating as noted in Wilson] or, 1650BC and the Jews were enslaved for 430 years after that, then their enslavement ceased about 1420BC, 1395BC or 1220BC?
Dr John Bimson has dated Joseph’s time in Egypt about the time of Sesostris III (1878BC-1841BC), near a time when there was an erratic flooding of the Nile. Joseph was possibly an administrator at Avaris/Pi-Ramesses, and so then the Israelites would have been on the Nile delta for 430 years. This might give an Exodus date about 1420BC? [Wilson].
* * * * *
There is, of course, a great deal of other historical or archaeological information which provides dates for events in other cultures besides the Egyptian – or in what became, Hebrew or Jewish culture. It is possible to find that things become worse, instead of better, more so with the dates around 1250BC. Here is various information which could easily surround an Exodus date of about 1250BC, not from Egypt, but from Greece, or, Troy.
We find in Wood’s book on Troy, that Iphigenia was sacrificed about 1250BC as part of the prelude to the Greek expedition against Troy. By or after 1300BC, the Egyptians had been bothered by the largely unspecified “Sea People”, or, the Sea Raiders, on whom Velikovsky wrote as he searched for coherent dates.
Was there, around 1300BC, a rebuilding of Pylos? When was the first destruction of Thebes? When was the greatest period of Mycenaean building – 1300BC-1250BC? Wood says that after 1300BC, Mycenaean society was under stress. Wood tends to date the fall of Troy about 1260BC, which fits with some chronology gained from Hittite letters. And possibly with information on the reign of Hattusilis III, when Hittite relations with the kingdom of Ahhiyawa (Greeks) were becoming hostile. One date for the Trojan War is 1250BC-1240BC [Mellersh].
Archaeologically, the Troy that the Greek poet Homer wrote about was Troy VI, which had its phase of life around 1375BC to 1250BC. The island of Lesbos was close, and Lesbos was sacked around 1250BC (Homer suggests, by Achilles). One god-figure for Lesbos was the Bronze-Age god, Smintheus, a powerful inflictor and averter of plague: the Greeks at Troy had prayed to him for relief.
About a date, 1250BC. The Encyclopedia Britannica says an early date of Exodus could be based on 480 years elapsing from Exodus to Solomon’s building his temple. Such dating could make Exodus about 1440BC, in the time of Tuthmosis III. But would such a dating give the destruction of the cities the Jews claimed to have captured as occurring about 1250BC, not 1400BC?
About 1250BC: The Greeks sought commercial advantage at the entrance of the Black Sea. [Mellersh]. Wood suggests that from 3600BC, Troy had been established by Neolithic settlers, from Kum Tepe by the Dardenelles. Troy was destined to be sacked at least nine times. By 2200BC, Troy was a royal citadel. When did the Greeks lay it to siege? Some 164 places settled by Greeks sent troops to wage war on Troy, according to listings given by the Greek poet, Homer. About 1300BC, Hittite tablets clearly refer to the Achaeans and their King, Agamemnon; some writers suggest that the pattern of Greek places that sent ships to Troy corresponds closely to then-settled areas now rediscovered by archaeology.
By 1250BC, large scale grain cargoes were sent from Ugarit to Hittite country, due to a famine. About 1250BC, Hittites were in danger of being swept away by the Sea People. The Philistines were one of the Sea Peoples invading Palestine and they gave areas of Palestine their name. The Philistines settled on the coast, and then spread inland, using iron weapons, but new pottery, as they adopted Canaanite culture. About 1250BC poste, the Philistines settled at Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, in one small strip [Bacon, Atlas]. About 1250BC, there was an actual earthquake at Troy. [Wood].
Problems continue. Mosaic Law was revealed in about 1350BC (an early date?) but this conflicts with the history of the Sea Peoples. [Bacon, Atlas]. The Sea People apparently had many different origins and were on the move around 1250BC, due to unclear economic and social pressures. It appears that Dorians, Aeolians and Ionians moved into Greece and the Aegean Islands. They probably destroyed the Mycenaeans and drove them east. Thraco-Phrygians were driven into Anatolia, later to bring down the Hittites. Some homeless peoples swept south to the coasts of Asia Minor and Syria, burning and looting as they went, until they were stopped by Ramses III, in 1174BC on the borders of Egypt.
By 1250BC, we find from a rock relief, a god of a Mesopotamian area, Sharruma, holds his steward-king, Tudhaliys in his embrace; this relief also has ideograms. We find in his book on The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, that a psychologist, Jaynes, has the Trojan War in actuality about 1230 BC, and that by then, the disaster of the eruption destroying Atlantis had destroyed the civilisations supported by “bicameralism”. One result: neighbour was to invade neighbour. Migrations went into Ionia and further south. Was there a dramatic change in religious sensibility, from benign to something more fearsome, and what caused it?
Jaynes in 1230 BC has Tukulti-Ninurta I, tyrant of Assyria, with a stone altar dramatically different, for he kneels in supplication before his god – who is represented by an empty throne. The old god has gone; the bicameral tradition has broken down. Tukulti is Nimrod in the Old Testament and King Ninos in Greek Myths. Nimrod had contact with some of the descendants of Noah’s sons (?); and in the Bible, Nimrod or Nimrod’s father was the first “mighty man” after the great flood.
Modern scholars feel that the Iliad had been transmitted in the oral tradition by Greek bards by about 1230BC, when contemporary Hittite tablets allow inferences to be made about cross-correspondences. (But it remains difficult to follow the history of Greek literacy-illiteracy, and I have read one recently-publishing English classics scholar who skips over about seven centuries of Greek illiteracy prior to Homer in just one unsatisfying sentence).
* * * * *
1275BC is near one “late date” for Exodus, and this give the conquest of Canaan about 1235BC. Some evidence exists here concerning some destruction of Canaanite cities. Here, one could dwell on books attempting to give a track for the Jews’ progress from Egypt to Jericho. However, patterns of any interest are rather disturbed here, of course, by Salibi’s controversial view that Moses and the Jews quite simply forgot their way home, and ended in an area foreign to them, when they had originally come from areas south of Mecca, on the south-west coasts of the Arabian Red Sea. [Salibi, The Bible Came From Arabia].
1400BC: One date for Joshua conquering Canaan is about 1400BC, while Joshua dies in 1380BC. [Packer et al]. But how did the newly-arriving Israelites continue to avoid the armies of Tuthmosis III and his son, Amenhopis II, who also was warlike? Or, did it happen that the Israelites prevailed while the unwarlike Akhenaten (1353BC-1335BC) was preoccupied with heresies, and Armarna? *
The Israelites, in the form of Tiye, et al, were obviously into the idea of a single god… or more importantly their own private god. These were the days of every city, state, and Elks lodge had their own god. For the most part, everyone tolerated everyone else’s god… and while there may have been competition for the hearts and minds of ignorant people… the fact of the matter was that few, if any, people would claim that there only existed a single god. They might, and probably did, claim that their god was better than your god, but not that your god did not exist. So what changed? What happened to make the likes of Tiye and her Israelite brethren so intent upon the idea that everyone else had to adhere to just one god, and that all the other gods who had had their moments… must now be discarded?
Taking on the role of “there is only one god, and our is it”, the Hebrews effectively challenged every single member of the human race at the time. Insisting upon a single god was throwing a glove in the face of any and everyone. It was an extreme measure… and there really doesn’t seem to be any good reason to insist upon such things… at least, a good reason from the viewpoint of the Hebrews.
On the other hand, if the god who was insisting that there was only one god… was a dysfunctional ego maniac… and that the idea of his brother, nephews, and so forth could hold forth with as much importance as he… then this monotheistic endorsing god… Aten, Jehovah, Enlil (or whatever other name)… might well begin insisting to this followers that they should forget tolerance as a peace keeping technique, should instead raise holy hell with the rest of the world, and thereafter insist on the “my way is the only way.” The Hebrews just had the bad luck to be “chosen” by Enlil for his nefarious purposes.
As for why the Hebrews would even buy such a egocentric point of view… they did get the title of “chosen” — and this is always a cool idea for many people… who desperately want to be superior to others. The problem, of course, is that the idea has really not worked out that well… thus far.
Generation No. 50-51
The following departs somewhat from line of descent we’ve been following. It is shown here in brief format in order to complete the line of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt pharaohs… and the manner in which they led to the 19th Dynasty of Egypt. The new pharaohs were (in order):
1 – Smenkhkare (Akenkhares) (1361 BC) — probably Generation No. 50 (with Moses)
2 – Possibly Neferneferuaten, a female Pharaoh (possibly Nefertiti, or Meki-taten)
3 – Tutankhamen (Tutankhamen) (Nebkheperure) (1361-1352 BC) (Generation 51)
4 – Aye (Amunpthis) (1352-1348 BC) Kheperkheprure (brother of Tiye, of Hebrew origin)
5 – Horemheb (Meryamun) (1348-1335 BC) (Commoner, Army commander-in-chief)
Someone who was not a pharaoh, but who was absolutely essential to the continuation of the royal lines is Kiya-tasherit, the daughter of Moses and Miriam (aka Akhenaten and Mery-amon). The line of descent from her is next on the agenda… particularly when she marries Rama (Aram/Arni), the descendant of Hezron and Kanita, and when her departure from Egypt is contemporaneous with the:
END OF THE 18TH DYNASTY OF EGYPT
Askenasi = Hebrews
It is the eagle that directly denotes Akhenaton whose name contains the word for “eagle” (Ikh or Akh) and which also mean the “eye.”
Akhenaten’s rituals included hymns. He is believed to have composed the “Great Hymn to the Sun” around 1340 B.C. which is noteworthy for its cosmotheistic approach to understanding the world. The hymn, which presents the universal power of the sun as the creator of the natural world, is similar to the famous Psalm 104, and scholars believe it may have directly influenced the Biblical verse.
As translated by Isaac Asimov in The Egyptians, the “Great Hymn to the Sun” reads: “The world came into being by thy hand . . . Thou art lifetime thy own self; For one lives through thee . . . Since thou didst found the earth; And raise them up for thy son; Who came forth from thy body: The king ….”
|At daybreak, when thou arisest on the horizon, When thou shinest as the Aton by day, Thou drivest away the darkness and givest thy rays…- The first lines of the opening verse from Akhenaton’s “Hymn to Aten,” that is the basis of the Old Testament’s Song of Solomon
“True wisdom is less presuming than folly. The wise man doubteth often, and changeth his mind; the fool is obstinate, and doubteth not; he knoweth all things but his own ignorance.”
“The ambitious will always be first in the crowd; he presseth forward, he looketh not behind him. More anguish is it to his mind to see one before him, than joy to leave thousands at a distance.”
“As the ostrich when pursued hideth his head, but forgetteth his body; so the fears of a coward expose him to danger.”
“Say not that honor is the child of boldness, nor believe thou that the hazard of life alone can pay the price of it: it is not to the action that it is due, but to the manner of performing it.”
“Indulge not thyself in the passion of anger; it is whetting a sword to wound thine own breast, or murder thy friend.”
“As the whirlwind in its fury teareth up trees, and deformeth the face of nature, or as an earthquake in its convulsions overturneth whole cities; so the rage of an angry man throweth mischief around him.”
See more famous quotes by
AkhenatonComparison of Akhnaton’s love him to Aton And Psalm CIV from the Christian bible –Line by line …
Akhanton’s Hymn – The world is in darkness like the dead. Every lion cometh forth from his den; all serpents sting. Darkness reigns.
Psalm CIV – Thou makest the darkness and it is night, wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth. The young lions roar after their prey; they seek their meat from God.
Akhnaton’s Hymn – When Thou risest in the horizon … the darkness is banished … Then in all the world they do their work.
Psalm CIV – The sun riseth, they get them away, and lay them down in their dens. Man goeth forth unto his work, and to his labour until the evening.
Akhanton’s Hymn – All trees and plants flourish, … the birds flutter in their marshes … All sheep dance upon their feet.
Psalm CIV – The trees of the Lord are full of sap … wherein the birds make their nests … The high hills are a refuge for the wild goats.
Akhanton’s Hymn – The ships sail upstream and down-stream alike … The fish in the river leap up before Thee; and Thy rays are in the midst of the great sea.
Psalm CIV – Younder is the sea, great an dwide, wherein are … both small and great beasts. There go the ships …
Akhanton’s Hymn – How manifold are all Thy works! … Thous didst create the earth according to They desire – men, all cattle, … all that are upon the earth …
Psalm CIV – O Lord, how manifold are Thy works! In wisdom hast Thou made them all. The earth is full of Thy creatures
Akhanton’s Hymn – Thou has set a Nile in heaven that it may fall for them, making floods upon the mountains .. and watering their fields. The Nile in heaven is for the service of the strangers, and for the cattle of every land.
Psalm CIV – He watereith the hills from above: the earth is filled with the fruit of They works. He bringeth forth grass for the cattle and green herb for the service of men.
Akhanton’s Hymn – Thou markets the seasons… Thou hast made the distant heaven in order to rise therein … dawning, shining afar off, and returning.
Psalm CIV – He appointed the moon for certain seasons, and the sun knoweth his going down.
Akhanton’s Hymn – The world is in They hand, even as Thou hast made them. When thou hast risen they live: when Thou settest they die .. By The man liveth.
Psalm CIV – Thou wait all upon Thee … When Thou givest them (food) they gather it; and when Thou openest Thy hand they are filled with good. When Thou hidest Thy face they are troubled: when Thou takest away their breath they die.
THUTMOSES IV: Hires Joseph/Yuya to run Egypt. (he knows Joseph is Pharaoh’s blood via Sarah)
2. AMENHOTEP III: Marries Yuya’s Daughter Tiye. (this is Solomon, who neglects the kingdom in his old age)
——–[period of famine during Solomon’s Akhenaten’s co-regency]
3. AMENHOTEP IV: Grandchild of Yuya. (builds Amarna, aka the “Garden of Eden”, and also the larger and smaller “Temples to the Aten/One True Creator” as envisioned by Joseph/Yuya and their family… Amarna is a complete world unto itself)
* Ahkenaten wanted to continue the grand building projects like his predecessors so he could have a lot of temples, etc.
He built two temples, both very humble, both in Amarna. You are fully wrong here. Between his father and the Ramsites, Akhenaten is more like a builder of a few log cabins and a chapel, than of skyscrapers and pyramids. …His “predecessors” were Solomon, Isaac and the Hyksos.
* He then goes off and builds his own city (named Ahkenaten (called Amarna today), after his godly self) in the middle of the desert, away from resources. Shipping stuff to his city is expensive and hard work… and the nobles were sort of obligated to move there.
1: The city did not have the same name as him.
2: Away from resources? The Nile was the resource.
3: Who gives a damn if “Nobles” are inconvenienced?
Akhenaten’s dad, Amenhotep III was the supreme ruler of that world, and married a Mittani princess, along with many other women, and died an irresponsible old insane crazy-man, who had Mittani idols shipped to him as he decomposed (He was the biblical Solomon). He is the reason why Egypt was politically faltering, because his story is that of a man who rules the world and becomes decadent in his old age. Akhenaten had to overcome scheming priests, the death of his older brother, and his own youth.
Akhenaten did not call himself God, but said that it was he who understood what RA,
the Sun spirit, was all about. For him to say about himself in a hymn, “Only I understand you” could also mean “I had a vision where I saw that the Sun was a Spherical thing much larger than Earth and moving through space”. Probably he wasn’t able to reveal everything, just a certain amount of truth (that the Sun is giant, and that it is the source of the zodiacial emanations which reach Earth via solar wind).His cross [the “ANKH”] is also meant to symbolize the numeral 1O (Ten), another insignia of Aten or Aton (Ten)
“Cult of Aton”
A symbol of the sign of Leo, it refers to the royal dynasties of Egypt. “the Cult of Aton” and the “Tribe of Judah”, both renegade exiles from Egypt
The Crest of the Knights Templar – featuring the same lion and unicorn motif that appears on so many royal coats of arms. These are Atonist symbols. The crown above the cross is pharaonic. The kings of the Merovingian dynasty were believed to have been born with birthmarks in the form of a red cross. Additionally, legend has it that the senior members of the Merovingian dynasty of France (founders of the Knights Templar) had birthmarks in the shape of a red cross.The word Mor or Mer, also referred directly to the Giza Pyramid and to the keepers of the knowledge of the pyramid. Therefore, it is a word that connects to secret societies and their knowledge (for example Merovingian).
||666 – (“The Holy Crown”)It is the sum of the Hebrew term nezer ha-kodesch – that means “The Holy Crown.” This term can be found throughout Masonic Temples and inscriptions. The “Holy Crown” is of Akhenaton and his descendants in the Cult of Aton. The symbol here of the cross has little to do with Christianity as we know it. If it were an Ankh, all would have been revealed long ago.
As the Sphinx-like Lion (of Judea). He was the Biblical Moses (prior to the great “Exodus)
mummy has never been found. A tomb east of Amarna was never completed and contained the body of one of his daughters. Excavation in the Valley of the Kings in tomb 55* presented a mummy that may have been Akhenaten. Although buried with items belonging to his mother, Queen Tiy, the body was later believed to be that of Smenkhkara. Until Akhenaten’s mummy is positively identified, such theories remain speculative.*: Some scholars do identify Mummy 61074, found in KV55, an unfinished tomb in the Valley of the Kings, as Akhenaten’s.
 If so—or if the KV 55 mummy is that of his close relative,** Smenkhkare—its measurements tend to support the theory that Akhenaten’s depictions exaggerate his actual appearance. Though the “mummy” conists only in disarticulated bones, the skull is long and has a prominent chin and the limbs are light and long. However, in 2007, Zahi Hawass and a team of researchers made CT Scan images of the KV 55 mummy. The elongated skull, cheek bones, cleft palate, and impacted wisdom tooth suggest that the mummy is the father of Tutankhamun, also commonly known as Akhenaten.
|Akhenatonis the “Phoenix” who rose from the ashes after the banishment from Egypt.
|Pope Paul VI –wearing the Judaic “Kohen Breastplate,” The chief Jesuit is referred to as “The General” a term Akhenaton used for himself. The skull cap, that is also worn by Jewish rabbis, was originally worn by the sun priests of EgyptThe Druids were dressed in white robes, the Bard in blue. The Arch-Druid wore a golden breastplate set with twelve jewels, similar to the breastplate of the high priest of Israel. Such a breastplate has been found on a skeleton in one of the Stonehenge tombs – Fredrick Haberman (Tracing Our Ancestors)The Breastplate of judgment worn by the Jewish high priest, called the Urim and Thummim, meaning emblems of royalty and truth, was also borrowed from Egypt, as we learn from these names, which are derived from the Egyptian words OURO, King, and THMEI, justice or truth…god Horus-Ra is Ouro, and the goddess with the feather on her head is Thmei- Samuel Sharpe (Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity) designed with 12 squares like the Kohen (Serpent) Breastplate. The term Kohen means “Serpent Priest”
The Pope has, from the inception of the St. Peter / Simon, been referred to as Servus Servorurm Dei – “Servant of the Servants of God”
On the pope’s miter is the Latin motto: Vicarius Filii Dei, that means “Vicar for the Son of God.”
The fictive Saul is a mythograph for SOL – the sun.
He was a non-biographical personification of the chiefs of the Cult of Aton, the real quorum behind the Throne of Judah (Yahud), and the “Davids”
The lion of Africa is used as a seminal symbol by the royal houses because of their descent from the House of David, or more correctly, from the House of Aton. The “Davids,” refers to the elites of the Cult of Aton.
.(“David” being a title for commanders and chieftains of the Levites and Hyksos pharaohs of Lower Egypt). The Dodge car company’s original logo prominently featuring Judaic (Atonist) star of the “Davids.” Now replaced with the martian ram’s head in blood-red colors. The ram is also symbol of the sun god Aton; but is as well a symbol of Christ : the innocent lamb/ram who tokk away the sins of the world, as in the Hebraic Sacrifice after Abraham’s example of Issac.
The star, was an ancient term denoting an Essene Master. The star is not “Judaic” in the sense learned and accepted today. It is the royal Star of David, that is of the House of Aton.
The term “Star” was used in the earliest times by hard-line Essenes and Jews in reference to their lineage of Messianic leaders. These men were not thought to have come from god. They were merely tribal or clan leaders in line from “David.”
The monument to the Catholic Stuart Dynasty of Scotland and England, in Rome. The Stuarts were one of many “Dragon” dynasties ruling the world. The word stuart means “steward,” signifying those who rule in place of another, or who officiate for another higher more elusive authority. Interestingly, the Stuarts were known as the “Jacobite” Kings, referring to the father of the Israelites (Atonists). The British flag is today referred to as the “Union Jack” for the same reason. Another Stuart symbol was the white rose. The Stuart Kings were of Breton heritage, and were closely allied to the noble families of Boulogne and Jerusalem, and their background was largely Templar-inspired – Laurence Gardner (Bloodline of the Holy Grail)
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————the ceremonies, festivities and city monuments associated with the ‘sister’ American and French Revolutions display Masonic ideas and imagery and…are heavily tinged with ‘Egyptian’ connotations and symbols –
Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval (Talisman)The U.S. Statue of Liberty is an Egyptian symbol that also connotes the Cult of Aton, the Scottish Free Masons, who are the hidden owners and rulers in America. The star that the statue is erected upon symbolizes Sirius.
The term “Neo-Con” is simply a new term for Atonist. No one in the White House, like NASA (a division of the Executive Branch of the Amerian government), serves the true interests of the American people. Theirs is the New World Order.
The 9 tail feathers represent the 9 degrees of the Illuminati (Atonist) Lodges.
The Scottish Masonic Order believes it secretly rules the U.S.A.
Its thirty-three degrees is based on the 33 degrees that the sun (Aton) must pass while resident in one sign of the zodiac. The word day comes from dyaus or deus meaning “god.” A good student is given a “degree” today, when he is ready to serve the Masonic god – Aton. The Masons – keepers of the “Royal Secret” – has to do with the survival and agenda of the renegade“Cult of Aton,” a thorough corruption/ heresy [and one of the earliest yet to continue] of the true Faith of the Holy Trinity.
||That last (above) addition was really my first presentation, which disappeared when I added the You-Tube videos.
BELOW is an addition mostle from Michael Tsarion a racist, and pagan anti-Semetic BIGOT, but who has unearthed much valuable information.:LORD” JESUS :
The term “aten” (or aton), that we find at the end of the names Tutankhaten and Akhenaton, derives from the supreme god of this family. Aten was personified by the sun. Aten or Aton is the Adon or Adonai of the Hebrews and Levites who were exiled from Egypt. The suffix “ai” found in Adonai simply means “one of.” Adonai, therefore, means “one of Adon” or “one of Aten.” based on the Pharaohs who instigated the monotheistic worship of Aten, Adon, Adonai, at Heliopolis and Thebes in Egypt. Adonai is officially known to be the active name of the Judeo-Christian god Yaweh (Ja, Jah, Yah, Yahweh, Ju, etc,). Originally, Yaweh was the god of the Egyptian Akhenaton, and his renegade family, later beoming the so-called Hebrews and Levites. After all, as the Old Testament reveals, Moses did not recognize the god that spoke to him at the “Burning Bush,” and had to ask for a name.
It is said of Mary and the women around Jesus that they “ministered unto him of their substance”
– Picket & Prince (The Templar Revelation)
More importantly, we have to understand that the Christ* is a figure largely based on the physical sun. The “Son” of God, the metaphorical “Light of the World,” is really the “Sun” of God, the actual Light of the World. This is not as heretical as it may first sound, for when we do our homework, and when we open our eyes, we will discover that the elites within Judeo-Christianity know this all too well. In fact, their predecessors are the ones who decided, as many other pagan peoples had already done, to personify the Sun as a man. As diligent researchers know, monotheism – the belief in one god – is not a creation of Judaism. It was a concept known thousands of years previously. The Judeo-Christian god and his son have their prototypes in Egypt.
Thou art the one, the God from the very beginnings of time, the heir of immortality, self-produced and self-born, thou didst create the earth and make man – (From the Egyptian Book of the Dead)
…King of Heaven, prince of Creation, sun of the eastern sky who appeared both to the dead in Hades and to the mortals upon earth he, the only true Helios, arose for us out of the highest summits of Heaven
– Melito of Sardis (Second Century Theologian)
Christianity’s god and son of god were originally associated with the sun and the stars.
As late as the fifth and sixth centuries, the words “Our Lord, the Sun” were used by the Christians in their prayers. his same phrase was also used in the liturgy until altered later into “Our Lord, the God” – Bozena Brydlova (Io Unveiled)
I am the root and offspring of David, and the bright and morning star –
Christ who was pronounced to be “sent” by Adonai/Yaweh, turns out to be “sent” by “the Lord”. The man referred to as “Christ” was an incarnation of “The Lord”, and was based on the Pharaohs who instigated the monotheistic worship of Aten, Adon, Adonai, at Heliopolis and Thebes in Egypt. It is from this “Cult of Aton”, therefore, that what is now known as Judeo-Christianity arose.
The Anointed One
This term “Christ” derives from the Egyptian word Krist which means “the anointed.”
The very word Messiah comes from messeh, which means “anointed”.
Christ who was pronounced to be “sent” by Adonai/Yaweh, turns out to be “sent” by “the Lord”. The man referred to as “Christ” was an incarnation of “The Lord”, and was based on the Pharaohs who instigated the monotheistic worship of Aten, Adon, Adonai, at Heliopolis and Thebes in Egypt. It is from this “Cult of Aton”, therefore, that what is now known as Judeo-Christianity arose.
The Anointed One
This term “Christ” derives from the Egyptian word Krist which means “the anointed.”
Anointing was an ancient custom throughout the East, by pouring aromatic oils on persons as a token of honor…it was also employed un consecrating priest, prophets, and kinds, and the places and instruments appointed for worship
– (New American Cyclopedia)
In ancient Palestine tradition it would seem kings, political and military chiefs, village heads and, in fact, any claimants to high office, were anointed and hence called the “anointed ones.”…some…after anointing, then became called “lord…”
Origen, Epiphanius and Julian the Emperor all clearly reveal that John the Baptist, Judas and Jesus’ cousin,
believed in “the annointing”.The Christian books weresaid to have been written, by the direct inspiration of the Holy Ghost, within the first century of the era.
This “god” (Yahweh-Aton) originally sported no name in the Hebrew writings. Even Moses/ Ankhenaton, at the so-called “burning bush”, had to ask the identity of
this “God”, called then just “I AM”.. This Yahweh was, and is, merely a rescripting of Aton – god of the Solar Cult…as He is re-revealed through the many major Biblical authors, translators and scholars, and a good many of the bishops, cardinals, popes, and evangelists. These were disciples of Christ (or “Christians”) [this Solar Cult’s name of officialdom] who accepted the renaming of the so-called “Broken Kings” of Egypt’s Eighteenth Dynasty, namely the family of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton), Smenkhkare, Nefertiti, Kiya, and the boy-king Tutankhamen, whom were morphed into the dramatis personae of the Bible, (rescripted as their great heroes), when the “Israelites” were under Babylonian captivity.
This “Iberu” intolerant, and renegade dynasty, lionized by modern historians, forbade Egyptians from venerating any other god except Aton, or Aten (the sun). They forcibly closed the great temples, instigated monotheism, and allowed foreign elements in to contaminate the racial purity of the Egyptians. Akhenaton (renamed Mosis, or Moses by later propagandists) was a priest of the Cult of the Sun. His god was Aton (also Adon, or Adonai).
The programme of defacement which followed was so thorough that we must postulate that either a small army or parties of hatchet men were dispatched throughout the realm of parties of inspectors were charged with seeing that local officials did the job. Everywhere, in the temples, the tombs, on statuary and even upon casual inscriptions, the hieroglyph for Amun and the representation of the god were chiseled out…Throughout the land objects sacred to him were defaced or destroyed – Lorraine Evans (The Kingdom of the Ark)
…seven years after Akhenaten came to the throne, the integrated system of politics, economics, and cult that Egypt had known for 1700 years had been drastically modified, if not turned upside down –
Now when his majesty arose as king, The temples of the gods and goddesses, beginning from Elephantine down to the marshes of the Delta, Had fallen into neglect, Their shrines had fallen into desolation and
become terraces overgrown with weeds. Their sanctuaries were as if they had never been, Their halls were a trodden path. The land was in confusion, the gods forsook the land…If one prayed to a god to ask things of him, they did not come. If one made supplication to a goddess in like manner, in no way did she come, Their hearts were weak of themselves with anger, they destroyed what had been done
– (The Restoration Stela of Tutankhamen)
The Egyptian people were far from satisfied with this new irregular theosophy which was being forcibly imposed upon them.
The “Hymn to Aten” does not offer the necessary rules for a good life or any notion of a judgment unto death. Atenism may have been logical and beneficial to the king, but it was to remote from the people and did not provide what his subjects wanted and expected. There can be no doubt that Akhenaton’s policies created immense social problems, which were only resolved when the old gods were restored upon his death. It is not surprising then that the worship of the Aten did not hold any appeal for the ordinary Egyptian.
– Lorraine Evans (Kingdom of the Ark )
Around the year 1361 BC, and after decades of suppression, the Egyptians finally rose up
against this decadent dynasty and ousted them from power. The great Pharaoh Horemheb
banished them and their many Israelite servants to the outer regions. The story of this
exodus is concealed in the Bible’s early books and chapters, but the true story has come to
light through the work of modern researchers. (See Moustapha Gadalla’s Historical
After their banishment to the eastern wilderness, these monotheists did not just disappear. They left Egypt with
all their wealth, and moved eastward toward Palestine, setting themselves up in Jerusalem. As the secret
“Thirteenth” tribe of Israel (ostensibly the Levites, and not to be confused with the Khazars), they commissioned
the proto-Freemasons (Phoenicians) to construct the Temple of Solomon (Sol) for them so they could continue
and promote their monotheistic cult.
From the moment when it first appears as an entity this tribe of Judah has a strange look. It was always cut
off, and never got on well with its neighbors. Its origins are mysterious. it seems from the beginning, with its
ominous name, somehow to have been set apart…
Douglas Reed (Controversy of Zion)
They demanded an order of existence fundamentally different from that of the people about them. These
were differences which allowed of no process of assimilation with others. They demanded separation,
absolute differentiation –
The little tribe in the south, Judah, became identified with the landless tribe, that of the Levites. These
hereditary priests who claimed that their office had been bestowed upon them by Jehovah on Mount Sinai
were the true fathers of Judaism
– Douglas Reed
The Cult of Aten (Aton) left Egypt along with the Semitic tribes that had served and lived alongside them in Tell el-
Amarna, at the great city of Akhenton. These tribes are today put before us as the “Israelites,” – the Jews of later
history. Those who became known later as Jews were originally, however, neither Israelites nor Hebrews. The
word hebrew derives from Ibaru, an ancient Egyptian term for the “wise ones.” It referred to the chief priests, and
to the magicians, astrologers, temple builders, and keepers of the secrets. The Ibaru were members of the elect
and were near to the House of the Pharaoh. This word had a similarity to Hibaru, which meant wanderer, or
shepherd, or foreigner. This unfortunate similarity of etymology has caused great confusion, but has favored the
machinations of those elites who crave to keep their true historical identities blurred. The ancient pagans, that is
the peoples of other races and countries, knew the meaning of these words, and knew the one from the other.
But in the west we don’t question the half-truths put before us. The ancients knew that the terms Israelite and
Ibaru referred only to high-ranking, spiritually endowed Egyptians. And they knew that Egypt had been visited
numerous times by vagabonds, and ne’er do wells, out for what they could get. The outlying provinces of Egypt
were often plagued by such miserables, who stole food, polluted wells, and generally caused a disturbance.
They were also known to be very unhygienic. More than once did the Egyptian Governors take to banishing and
exiling such foreigners who were infecting their people. Thankfully, there are a few western scholars who have
seen through the controversy of the identity. Jewish author Max L. Dimont covers the problem in his fine book
Jews, God and History.
Let us pose a hypothetical question: Where the Hebrews who left Ur with Abraham in 2000 BC, and the
Hebrews who entered Egypt under Joseph in 1600 BC, the same people as the Israelites who were led out of
Egypt by Moses in 1200 BC? Were these Israelites who came out of Egypt the descendents of Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob, or were they a different people?…
Dimont goes on to write:
…In Genesis, the book dealing with their history before their entry into Egypt, the Jews are, with one
exception, referred to as Hebrews, not as Israelites. After their exodus from Egypt and in the other Books of
Moses, the Jews are referred to mostly as Israelites, very seldom as Hebrews. After the exodus, it is the pagans who usually refer to the Jews as Hebrews, whereas the Jews usually refer to themselves as
Max Dimont (Jews, God and History)
We can see from these passages that the people who were exiled to the wilderness with Akhenaton (Moses),
were the Bibical Israelites or Hebrews, as name changing was a very common practice in the ancient world. Akhenaton himself
had changed his name from Amenhotep.
The “Israelites” were the people who accompanied the Pharaoh, they were the Pharaoh and his
immediate Egyptian coterie. As we have said, this word referred to the high initiates of Egypt. Because they had
once ruled in Egypt, the Solar Cult of Aton were revered and obeyed. It was relatively easy for them to weld
themselves to the Semitic priestarchies which frequented Palestine. But the Cult of Aton, and their one god, were
also feared. We certainly read of their utter ruthlessness in the early chapters of the Old Testament) won them many local enemies. Everyone that stood in their way was crushed or undermined politically. Upon diligent and unbiased research we can soon discover just how these connoisseurs of power used various
strategies to cover their tracks. We find that because of their relative lack of success in merging with the ten
tribes of the house of Israel (various spurious polyglot Semitic groups), the Levitical Judahites began seeking
other more convenient and sustainable covers behind which to operate. They saw to it that their own true history and advance would be cryptically concealed behind the officially
presented stories of the Exodus, the building of the Temple, the conflict between the Houses of Israel and Judah,
the Captivity in Babylon, the westward journey of Jeremiah and the 10 tribes.
The wholesale ransacking of Jerusalem by the Romans during the second
destruction of the Temple (35 years after the so-called Crucifixion):
Tired of all the uprisings and foment, the
Emperor Vespasian ordered the annihilation of Jerusalem. The fury of the attack had the effect of permanently
scattering the Judeans far and wide. Though the Levites (Pharisees) would regroup in Jamnia, they were too
displaced and exposed a group to be of further use, to their controllers.
One hundred years following the sacking and seizure of Israel, the Levites composed their “Law,”
epitomized in Deuteronomy which was read aloud in the temple. This was the birth of “Mosaic Law” of the so-called Judaic “religion” (now known as JUDAISM”), but really
created by the Levites and attributed to Moses as the TALMUD containing Levitical or Judaic law. It is their “political
programme.” Deuteronomy means “Second Law” because it stood distinct from the original Israelite law. It
was the first book to be completed and is not the fifth book of the Bible – Douglas Reed (Controversy of Zion)
According to orthodox accounts, after the Christians were forced into Europe and Asia, [and
the ten tribes of Israel assimilated into the western lands ], the Cult of Aton (or “Christianity”) Miraculosly spread throughout the “Gentile” world, based largely on Solar Theocracy, (or the acounts of Jesus), it was
scriptorily compiled by the ancient apostles, and appeared as the sundry biographies of prophets, saints, and martyrs. Meanwhile, many of the “Jewish people, who did not adher by it, CREATED their new oppressive Mosaic (Levitical / Pharisaic) religion of MODERN JUDAISM. By the time of the Pisos in
Italy, the phantasmagoria of theology was compiled in one incoherent book, “THE HOLY SCRIPTURES/BIBLE”; and it was eventually bestowed a
aura of holy authenticity by the Vatican’s officialdom under the Primacy of the Pope, successor to Simon Peter, the “first” Pope in Rome.
| AVARIS AND THE HEBREWS
DID THE EXODUS HAPPEN? ANSWERING THE SCEPTICS
Dr. David Lewis
A new wave of scholars is now dogmatically declaring that the Exodus never took place. They insist it’s just a myth concocted centuries later in the time of Josiah to justify the existence of a Jewish state. Some of these new sceptics, such as Zeev Hertzog and Israel I Finkelstein of Tel Aviv University, are Jewish themselves!
The implications of their teaching are profound. They insist that, historically, there really is no such thing as a Jewish or Israelite people descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. There never was an Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob. Moses was a myth, and never wrote the first five books of the Bible. The so-called Israelites are just Canaanites that emerged in Palestine, were joined by a few nomads, and concocted a new religion.
If these new theories are true, then:
The Jewish people have no historical claim to either the land of Canaan, being a nation, or maintaining the State of Israel today. According to the new historians, Israelites aren’t Israelites, just Palestinians.
Christians can’t rely on the authority of the Bible if the very events that foreshadow the death and sacrifice of Jesus Christ are myth. The Passover in Exodus 12 points to His death and He observed as a memorial as did Paul’s converts in I Corinthians who recognized vital spiritual lessons in the Hebrew Exodus.
The new archaeological theories present a fundamental attack on the very foundations of both Judaism and Christianity.
Denial of the Exodus and the reality of the Biblical account is nothing new. Neither are these arguments. The sceptics have been around for over 200 years, and much of their teaching has been the accepted wisdom in universities for a long time. The theories are now being recycled because of a lot of new archaeological evidence that Professor Finkelstein and others have uncovered. This evidence, it is claimed, provides no evidence for the Exodus or the Bible.
Are the sceptics right? They are looking at the right evidence, but at the wrong time. Dating in the history of Egypt and Palestine is based on a couple of assumptions that professors have handed down over the decades. First, they assume the Exodus took place, not when the Bible says it did, around 1450-1447 BC but around 1300 BC. The Bible says the Hebrews built the city of Ramesses and that existed around the time of Ramses II who is dated around 1290. There is no evidence of Hebrews or an Exodus at that time.
What if, however, the Hebrews built the city of Avaris, which existed before the city of Ramesses? Also, what if the Egyptian chronology itself has been wrongly focused? At the very time the historical establishment was more and more rejecting the Biblical record, a handful of archaeologists were questioning the accepted wisdom. In 1991 a group led by Peter James published a book called Centuries of Darkness. Four years later British archaeologist David Rohl published A Test of Time,
marketed in America as Pharaohs and Kings. Both of these books argue, convincingly in my opinion, that the traditional dating of much of ancient history before 1000 BC in most history books is flawed.
Both James and Rohl did not start out with an agenda of trying to prove the Bible. They just went to the Egyptian tombs and monuments and concluded that several of the later dynasties ruled side by side. This meant that earlier dynasties were placed anywhere from one hundred to three hundred years further back than they should have been. The three hundred year ‘Dark Age’ which historians describe in Greece, Phoenicia, and other places, shrinks and even disappears.
The Pharaoh Shishak who invaded Jerusalem has been identified with Soshenk. But Soshenk never attacked Jerusalem but northern Israel! Another Pharaoh did attack Jerusalem. ..the famous Rameses II. In Egyptian he is Ra Me Shi Sha, the Shishak being a Hebrew nickname for ‘The Destroyer’. Rohl concluded that Shishak was Rameses, that the splendid late Canaanite period was the time of Solomon, that the period of the El Amarna letters was the time of Saul and David.
Rohl’s biggest discovery, though, was in finding the evidence for the Exodus in the Thirteenth Dynasty. His findings are summarized by John Fulton, a supporter of David Rohl:
‘Before Moses, the Bible records that the Israelites were enslaved by their Egyptian hosts (Exodus 1:8-14). In the Brooklyn Museum (p.276, fig. 310) resides a papyrus scroll numbered Brooklyn 35:1446 which was acquired in the late 19th century by Charles Wilbour. This dates to the reign of Sobekhotep III, the predecessor of Neferhotep I and so the pharaoh who reigned one generation before Moses. This papyrus is a decree by the pharaoh for a transfer of slaves. Of the 95 names of slaves mentioned in the letter, 50% are Semitic in origin. What is more, it lists the names of these slaves in the original Semitic language and then adds the Egyptian name each had been assigned, which is something the Bible records the Egyptians as doing, cf. Joseph’s name given to him by pharaoh (Genesis 41:45). Some of the Semitic names are biblical and include:- Menahem, Issachar, Asher, and Shiprah (cf. Exodus 1:15-21).
That 50% of the names are Israelite means that there must have been avery large group of them in the Egyptian Delta at that time, corroborating the testimony of Exodus 1:7 which alludes to how numerous the Israelites became. The sceptics look for Israel in the Egypt of the Nineteenth Dynasty and remain sceptics, because the proof is in the Egypt of the Thirteenth Dynasty. The site of Avaris has been uncovered by the Austrian archaeologist Manfred Bietak in the land of Goshen underneath that of the city of Ramesses.
Bietak is best known as the director of the Austrian excavations at two sites in the Nile delta: Tell El-Dab’a, which was the location of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos period; andPiramesse, which was the capital of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. The site was also most probably the naval base Peru-nefer of Thutmosis III and Amenhotep II. A palace precinct of those kings, furnished with Minoan frescoes was one of the most important discoveries. [Bietak has also conducted excavations in western Thebes (Luqsor), where he discovered the huge tomb of Ankh-Hor, Chief steward of the Divine Wife of Amun Nitokris (26th Dynasty).]
It provides plenty of proof, says Fulton, for Israel’s presence and sufferings in Egypt:
‘The people who lived in Avaris were not Egyptian but Asiatic Palestinian or Syrian [perhaps “HITTITE”]. The finds there included numerous pottery fragments of Palestinian origin. Several factors about the graves were particularly fascinating:- 65% of the burials were of children under 18 months of age, the normal for this period being 20-30%. Could this be due to the killing of the male Israelite children by the Egyptians, recorded in Exodus 1:22? A disproportionately high number of adult women as opposed to adult men are buried here, again pointing to the slaughter of male Israelite babies. There are large numbers of long-haired Asiatic sheep buried which indicate these people to be shepherds. Large numbers of weapons found in the male graves indicate the warlike nature of the people.’
According to the Bible, Moses was bom around 1527 BC, in the reign of Neferhotep I. A few fragments of ancient records from a Jewish historian called Artapanus were preserved by the Catholic historian Eusebius. They say that the Pharaoh’s daughter at the time Moses was born was called Merris. She married the Pharaoh Khenephres, also called Sobekhotep IV.
Moses or Mousos, meanwhile became a great general who invaded Nubia and Ethiopia. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 2.10.1-2 tells the story. The Ethiopians had invaded Egypt and had practically overrun the country:
‘The Egyptians, under this sad oppression, betook themselves to their oracles and prophecies; and when God had given them this counsel, to make use of Moses the Hebrew, and take his assistance, the king commanded his daughter to produce him, that he might be the general of their army … So Moses … cheerfully undertook the business’ and defeated the African invaders by marching through a snake-infested region and taking them by surprise: ‘When he had therefore proceeded thus on his journey, he came upon the Ethiopians before they expected him; and, joining battle with them, he beat them, and deprived them of the hopes they had of success against the Egyptians, and went on in overthrowing their cities, and indeed made a great slaughter of these Ethiopians.’
Josephus was right. A monument in the British Museum tells of Khanferre or Khenephres invading Sudan and Ethiopia, the only Thirteenth Dynasty ruler to do so. Remains of an Egyptian government building with the Pharaoh’s statue has been found hundreds of miles south of known Egyptian territoy
Sobekhotep IV/Khenephres was the [co-]Pharaoh of the Oppression from whom Moses fled, about 1487 BC. The forty years Moses spent in Midian were likely to have been 1487-1447 BC. The Pharaoh of the Exodus was Dudimose. Fulton records that the Austrians found evidence both of God’s slaying of the firstborn and the sudden departure of Israel from Goshen:
‘The Tenth Plague to be sent on Egypt just before the Exodus was the plague on the first-born, recorded in Exodus 12:29,30. At the end of stratum G/l at Tell ed-Daba or the ancient city of Avaris (p.293), archaeologists found shallow burial pits into which the victims of some terrible disaster had been thrown. These death pits were not carefully organized internments; the bodies were simply thrown in on top of one another. Could these be the burial pits of the first-born Egyptians? What is more, immediately after this disaster, the remaining population left Avaris en masse; this fits perfectly with the Exodus of the Israelites following the final terrible plague.’
Manetho, the Egyptian historian wrote how Egypt collapsed in the reign of Dudimose:
‘Tutimaos: In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land (Egypt). By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods and treated all our natives with cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others.’
The invaders were/ MAY HAVE BEEN the Amalekites Israel encountered after leaving Egypt. They found Egypt, devastated by Divine judgment an easy prey.
‘The continuing archaeological discoveries’ says Fulton, ‘here in the ancient city of Avaris mirror exactly the early Israelites revealed in the Old Testament. For two centuries no evidence was found for the Israelites when looking in the strata of the 19th Dynasty. Now that the chronologies have begun to be amended and the sojourn in Egypt placed in the 12th and 13th Dynasties, we have a wealth of archaeological evidence corroborating the Biblical account.’
Association with the Hebrews
Jacobovici’s Exodus Decoded
is A 2006 documentary created by Jewish Canadian filmmaker Simcha Jacobovici
(pron. “Jacobovich”), which explores new evidence in favour of the account of the Book of Exodus
, “Exodus Decoded” (The History Channel, aired Sunday, 20 August, 2006), investigates Egyptian records of the departure of the mysterious SemiticHyksos
.Jacobovich suggests that the Hyksos and the Hebrews (whom he calls “Amo Israel”, “the people of God”) were one and the same
, a thesis he supports with Egyptian-style signet rings uncovered in the Hyksos capital of Avaris
. These signets read Yakov, similar to Hebrew name of the Biblical patriarch Jacob (Ya’aqov). Another standpoint for this theory is one of the important Hyksos cities, Avaris, which is called modernly Tel el-Yahudiyeh (meaning “mound of the Jews”)
known for its distinctive black and whiteware.
Jacobovici propounds the theory that the eruption of the Santorini Island volcano
( c. 1623 B.C., 25) caused all the biblical plagues described against Egypt, redating the eruption to c. 1500 B.C.. The Hyksos
, some of them Mycenaean Greek “Hebrews”, fled Egypt (which they had in fact ruled for some time) after the eruption. Jacobovici
(and fellow producer James Cameron) make a compelling but rather thin-edge-of-the-wedge thesis that the Hyksos were none other than the Israelites
, who may have also been known as Habiru (“Hebrews”).
The pharaoh with whom they identify the Pharaoh of the Exodus is Ahmose I, whose name means “the moon is born”.
notes from History Channel program 2006
The documentary sets out to explain Exodus using science, history and archeology.
The story of Exodus, the 2nd book of the Bible, begins with the plight of the
descendents of Jacob in Egypt. Joseph, the next to youngest son of Jacob (Israel)
is sold into slavery by some of his brothers. Joseph rises to a great position of
leadership, perhaps second only to the pharoah.
The Bible says that a pharoah rose up that did not know Joseph. The Egyptians
feared the Israelites in their land and oppressed them, eventually heading toward
infantcide of male children. The midwives refused to kill the Hebrew males. One
male child born to Levites was kept hidden for three months and then set to float
down the Nile where the daughter of pharoah found him and raised him as her own.
This was the great, great grandson of Jacob, Moses.
Evidence presented as:
A. Discovered in 1947, the Stele of Ahmose, 1500BC, describes a catastrophic
event on Egypt. It's in the Cairo Museum. - Pharao Ahmoses
Sequenenre Tao II - skull crushed by enemy axe, possibly by departing Hebrews
Ahmoses - brother of Moses - expelled a foreign nation from Eqypt,
Hyksos Period, 1750-1500BC.
B. Avaris - Capital of Hyksos - discovered in the 1960's.
C. Bible says "Exodus" / Egypt says Hyksos "expulsion"
D. Seal of Pharaoh - 9 seals found in Avaris - Jacob (Yakov) only time a Hebrew name appears.
Avaris off limits to general public - plowed and reseeded every year.
E. Serabit El Khadim - 400km south of the Nile delta in the Sinai - turquoise mines.
Israelites didn't use hieroglyphics - Biblical God "El" found in Serabit Slavery inscription.
F. Santorini volcano 1600-1500BC - Pumice appears in Avaris - 1500BC
Earthquake storms... Nile delta on a fault line.
1) Nile turned to blood - gas leaks like Lake Manura and Lake Nyos in Cameron
in 1984 and 1986 - dissolved iron forms iron hydroxide, depletes oxygen, kills fish
2) frog infestation - frogs got out of the water...
5) epedemic (mass graves at Avaris found)
6) boils and blisters - 1986 Lake Nyos, Cameron - CO2 resulted in boils
7) hail - unusual - ice and fire together - volcanic hail - ecrecyian (sp?)
G. Hyksos period papyrus - IPUWER plagues papyrus - describes strange hail
8) locust - migrate in swarms - cold weather make them land enmasse
9) darkness - Santorini - 40km top to bottom 200km across ash cloud, pumice found in Avaris.
H. Santorni Pumice in Nile delta - Smithsonian Prof. Jean-Daniel Stanley
10) first Passover - Eqyptians slept (EX 12:29)
- carbon dioxide - Lake Nyos, Cameron 21 August 1986 - visible fog, killed hundreds
- only male selectively - Egyptian first born - privileged position, slept in low
beds - graves of males at Avaris support this. Others slept on carts or roofs.
I. Male plague - mass graves, only male found at Avaris.
J. Ahmose - son died young - Prince Sapaik 12 years old - EX 12:29
K. El Arish inscription - Lake El Balah
L. Yam Suf (Reed Sea) - Lake El Balah
M. Some left for Greece - 1972 under Santorini map found connecting Egypt to Greece.
N. Grave Stele of Mycenae - images on gravestone - "movie" of the parting of the sea.
0. Mount Sinai - Hashem El Tarif
1) 15km/day - 210 km into desert EX 3:1-2
Moses tended Midianite territory - Timna - exception
2) 45 km from Timna (local flock grazing practices - max distance)
Deut 1:2 - Mountain of God is an 11 day journey from Kadesh Barnea -
Oasis of Tela Kadok - North Central Sinai (spelling needs to be verified, can't read my writing)
3) 165km from Kadesh Barnea
- Holy Mountain - surrounded by sanctuaries - huge plateau - large cleft/natural podium
Ark of the Covenant - artifacts
National Archaelogical Museum - Athens
In his Antiquities of the Jews and Against Appion, Josephus recounts a tale supposedly from Manetho about the expulsion of a group of Asiatic lepers, led by a renegade Egyptian priest called Osarseph. It appears this tale is a conflation of events of the Amarna period, of the earlier Hyksos expulsion, the Exodus, and events at the end of the 19th Dynasty (perhaps early anti-Semitism). Josephus, who did not want to concede that his people were descended from either Egyptians and/or lepers, identified the expulsion of the Jews (the Exodus) with the Hyksos, saying that in addition to his ancestors being kings, but that hyk came from the Egyptian word for “captive”, so that hyksos meant “captive shepherds”. Josephus is also responsible for the false etymology that Hyksos in fact stood for Hekw Shasu – ‘”Wandering Shepherd Kings” – which has only been corrected by more modern scholarship.
[Plus d’infos : http://blogs.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.view&friendId=23480555&blogId=169926229#ixzz156K5TyHM
DATES “all out-of-whack” ?
English Translation: August 26th, 2010
An event that has particularly fascinated believers and scholars has been the dramatic exodus of the Hebrew people, as Septuaginta says,
(= from the land of Egypt, the house of slavery) (Deut, 5
, 6). Its proposed date has been changed several times, as Egyptology and other sciences were providing objective evidence.
Objective evidence: this is what has recently emerged as a result of the work of Austrian Egyptologist Dr. Manfred Bietak.
Here I intend, most modestly (I am not archeologist), to derive from these data, in a merely speculative way, some possible implications for the dating of the Exodus.The number and origin of migrants
a) The number of evacuees
Egyptian Annals remain silent about it, but the Old Testament says that the crowd that came out was (Exodus, 12
, 38) “a motley crowd and great herds of sheep and cows
“. Motley crowd means mix of ethnic groups?. Exodus, 12
, 37 stands that more than 600,000 people came, “not counting the children
Contemporary criticism does not accept this enormous figure. Nor is it credible that such mass could survive in the desert for forty years.
We will see this later on.b) Place of origin of the evacuees
As to the place of origin, again the usually meticulous Egyptian sources say nothing, but, according to the Bible, Exodus started in Pi-Ramses.The lost City of Ramses
We know that Ramses II the Gre
at (~ 1279-1213)  founded a new capital on the eastern shore of the “Waters of Ra” (on the map, in blue, continuous line) along the temple built in the area by Seti I, a city which received the name of Per-Ramses or, in the dialect of the time, Pi-Ramses (Domain of Ramses). He set up residence there from the 11th year of his reign (~ 1268). His successors (with exceptions, like Merenptah) held in that city the capital.
Around Pi-Ramses gradually developed a big city, which grew enormously over the years to cover 10 km along the Nile, with a width of about 3 km, giving a floor space of 3,000 Ha, the largest city in the world then, bigger than Thebes, Heliopolis, and even Babylon. The modern city of Qantir occupies the perimeter of the vast palace of Ramses, which gives an idea of its size.
The growth of the city came to encompass Tell al-Dab’a, site of the fortress-city of Avaris, the capital of the hated Hyksos. The Avaris of the Hyksos would have, according to Dr. Bietak, some 250 hectares, with room for 60,000 people. The number of inhabitants of Pi-Ramses is very difficult to ascertain, estimates varying between half a million and a million and a half.The Nile Delta
It is worth to emphasize that, although during the rule of the Hyksos was accentuated the flow of Asian immigrants, this flow existed since long before  and continued to exist afterwards. Furthermore, the destruction of Hykso power could not lead to a mass expulsion of all Asians, but only the exile of the ruling class and the subjugation of the rest. With regard to the ethnicity of the Hyksos, the finding in Avaris of Cretan-style paintings, including scenes of taurokathapsia, nothing will probe, since also the palace of Amenophis III at Malqatta was decorated by Cretan artisans, as well as the royal palace of Qatna, North of Qadeš, destroyed by the Hittites at ~1340. (16).The Tell of the Hyena
Years ago Dr. Bietak, Director of the Institute of Egyptology of the University of Vienna and the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo, published the results of his excavations at Tell ad-Dab’a (Tell of the Hyena), about two kilometers south of the Qantir site, Eastern Delta. He had found a clear sequence of occupation: over the remains of the Middle Kingdom, a Semitic cultural layer associated with Palestine and Syria – traces of occupation by the Hyksos – and, after a long hiatus, a powerful reconstruction at the time of Ramses II . The news is that recent studies by magnetometer, with the decisive intervention of the German archaeologist Prof. Edgar Pusch, have allowed a glimpse of the lost city of Ramses, and surveys performed in situ
have identified what was the course of the Nile at the time, thus leading to gather a data set highly relevant. (See bibliography).The silting of the Pelusiac arm of the Nile
According to Dr. Bietak, in the XIIth century B.C., the eastern arm of the Nile, called the “Waters of Ra”, and then leading to the sea near the later city of Pelusium (Tell el-Farama), future key of the Eastern Delta, began to silt. Herculean efforts were made to dredge it, as evidenced by the landfills still be seen in the area, but in the end, there was no choice but to abandon the struggle: the Nile had irreversibly opened its way to the sea by a new arm, later called Tanite Arm (on the map, in blue, dashed).
There have not yet been published documents describing these works, or alluding to their cost, which must be gigantic. Necessarily had to affect the economic crisis that hinders much of the reigns of the XXth Dynasty.A dramatic dilemma
Once dried the “Waters of Ra”, one of two things: either changing back the course of the Nile, or changing the city. At some point it was decided to build a new capital precisely on the banks of the new main course of the Nile, later on called tanitic arm, having been built on its banks a city that in Greek would be named Tanis. In Egyptian Dja’net. The Bible calls it Zoan.Dja’net hieroglyph. The circle with the cross of St. Andrew is the determinative of “city.”The number of evacuees and the number of exiles
We wonder whether, in view of the gigantism of the megalopolis of Pi-Ramses, its abandonment could lead to the narrative of the departure of more than 600,000 people mentioned in the Bible.
We should not exclude the possibility that the foundation works of Tanis were contemporary or even earlier to an abandonment of Pi-Ramses previsibly inevitable. The most remarkable monuments were transferred. Some, like a colossal statue of Ramses II, were at Tanis, which complicated the first dating attempts by Pierre Montet.
More than a megalopolis of orderly growth, the Pi-Ramses end of his time would have grown in the way of what they call ranchitos
in Caracas and in Rio and Sao Paulofavelas
. It seems logical that the evacuees were offered a relocation within Egypt, although in such circumstances that a dissenting minority would prefer to return to the land of their ancestors. Their small number would make possible their survival in the desert.THE DATE OF THE EXODUS
The Bible of Jerusalem: Ramses II, the date post quem
The Bible of Jerusalem (1-b) says in his Introduction to the Pentateuch:
“The modern historian’s task is to confront these data in the Bible with the general facts of history.
On the date of the Exodus, we cannot trust the indications of I-Kings 6, 1, or Judges 11, 26, which come out of secondary and artificial computational procedures. But the Bible contains a decisive indication: according to the ancient text of Ex 1, 11, Hebrews worked in the construction of the cities of deposit Ramses and Pitom.
Accordingly, the Exodus must be after the seizure of power by Ramses II, who founded the City of Ramses. ”
Therefore, a post quem date would be the 11th year of Ramses II (~ 1268).
Undoubtedly, the Egyptian domination over Canaan collapsed at an unspecified date, being replaced by two entities that fought fiercely against each other: the Hebrews and the Philistines, without Egyptian intervention. We must therefore find out this unspecified date, closely linked to the end of the XXth Dynasty.
Map of Canaan during the XIXth and XXth Dynasties (See attached clarifications)
MAP: Clarifications on place names
Some place names are repeated, so we must not confuse Qadeš on the banks of the Orontes with Qadeš north of Hazor, nor Qadeš-Barnea in the south, in the confines of the Desert of Sin.
Let us not confuse Hazor, north of Lake Kennaret (later called “sea” of Galilee or Lake Tiberias) which was the center of the whole surrounding kingdoms (according to the Bible, it would be taken and destroyed by Jošua), with or Gezer or Gazer, halfway between Yaffa (the sea) and Jerusalem, which would be severely punished the ~4th year of Pharaoh Merenptah.
The name “Gilgal” (meaning “stone circle”) is repeated in at least three points of Canaan. The nearest to Jericho and the Jordan -the only one outlined in the map- was a meeting place in the early days of the conquest.
In several place names the word “bet”, often written “beth”, in the languages of the region means “house.”
In several place names the word “el” or better, ‘” ‘el”, is the name of a divinity that has been embedded in personal names as Isra’el, Isma’el, Rafa’el, Mija’el, etc.
Spanish Mediterranean areas provide us with the word “rambla”, preferable to the more humid climates word “torrent” to describe various channels usually dry, very common in all the coasts of this sea. They are drawn in dashed blue line.
END of the clarifications.
Egyptian punitive expeditions
Egyptian rule over the region of Canaan is very old. It collapsed a the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty, in times of Akhenaten. Horemheb tried to reset it without success.
Campaign of Seti I
It was Seti I, of the XIXth Dynasty, who ruthlessly reimposed it, conquering the city of Yeno’am on the banks of the Jordan, on the road passing south of the Sea of Galilee, and driving from Meguiddo to Astarot, capital of kingdom of Bashan (1st year stela found at Bet-San (Tell el-Husn, Cisjordania), and bas-reliefs of the great temple of Amun at Karnak).
Campaigns of Ramses II (year 4th and year 5th)
Again Ramses II in the 4th year of his reign, had to give a “blow of authority”, as reported by another stela, also found in Bet-San. He clashed with the Hittite power and intrigues, and tried to reconquer the city and the acropolis of Qadeš on the Orontes, moving there with a powerful army (5th year) consisting of four divisions. The battle ended in a draw, the acropolis of Qadeš was not taken by the Egyptians, and never would be.
Campaing of Ramses II (7th year)
In his 7th year, Ramses II launched a pincer movement against the kingdom of Moab, located east of the Dead Sea. He moved up the coast to Gaza, leading then to the east, passing north of present day Jerusalem, crossing the Jordan and leaving Mount Nebo on his right, turned to the South, by Dibon, to the city of Rabat-Batora. His eldest son Amen·hir·jopšef, abandoning the “Way of Horus” (the coast road, which later on would be called “way of the Philistines” which had not yet been installed there) plunged eastward across the wilderness of Sin to reach the Rambla of Arabah. He twisted northward to converge with his father the Pharaoh and close the iron clad on Rabat-Batora, which was wiped off the map. Since then, the city of Qir-Moab appears as the capital of Moab.
Other campaigns of Ramses II against Canaan
In his 8th year he launched another campaign in Western Galilee, submitting Akko, and winning Merom and other cities. In the South he had to submit Aškelon, and excavations prove that he destroyed manu militari, then reestablished Yaffa, leaving inscriptions on the pillars that flank the gateway to the city. The papyrus Anastasi I says that the cities of Jaffa, Damascus, and Sumur were personal property of Ramses II.
Campaign of Merenptah (4th year?) against Canaan
Merenptah, like his father and grandfather, had to re-impose its authority in Canaan by force of arms. The Victory Stele says he subdued the cities of Aškelon and Gezer (which are clearly identified) and claims to have “left no seed” (“eradicated?) to YiSRRi3R. Although most analysts are inclined to identify these people with Israel, it is not impossible, in view of the enclosed map, that it relates simply to have devastated the crops of the Yizre’el plain, like others are saying. In the North he swept the city of Yeno’am, which had been submitted by Seti I, but had rebelled. Around the plateau above Yizre’el, the map shows two place names with the same termination that Yeno’am: Yoqne’am, and Ible’am. The Egyptians should have done a thorough job in Yeno’am, wiping it out, because it still is not clear if the city lies at Tell el-Na’am or Tell el-‘Abidiyah.
Seti II (~ 1201-1195), Siptah (~ 1195-1189) and Tausret (~ 1189-1187)
Egyptian rule in Bet-San during the first and last of these kingdoms (whose “cartouches” were found there) is witnessed in Level VII, which shows a Canaanite city with Egyptian garrison. The full biography of anti-pharaoh Amenmose (~ 1200-1196) remains obscure. The same happens with an intriguing character of Kha’ru (Syrian-Canaanite) origin, which boasted himself of installing Siptah on the throne of his father, and held all the power of the state during this reign and, perhaps, the following on: Chancellor Bay, of such significance that he got his own tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
Ramses III (~ 1185-1153)
In Cisjordania, in Bet-San, was found the statue of Ramses III, whose photo is enclosed.
Statue of Ramses III unearthed at Bet-San (Tell el-Husn)
In Transjordania two sites have been studied, very important indeed for dating the end of Egyptian rule in the region: Tell es-Sa’idiya (See Appendix 2) and Deir ‘Alla.
At Tell es-Sa’idiya, near the Jordan, has been excavated and studied an Egyptian military post of the time of Ramses III. Just south, in Deir ‘Alla in the right bank of river Yabbok, a tributary of the Jordan, are dated two attempts at reconstruction of Ramses III, followed by fires. On the death of Ramses III (~ 1153 BC) it is reoccupied with ceramic so-called “Philistine.”
Ramses III in Canaan also built temples for the worship of the Canaanite gods,
witnessing the Egyptian control of both banks of the Jordan at the time. Papyrus Harris provides an overview of this long reign (31 years), written apparently for the coronation of Ramses IV, but it reviews no evidence of significant developments, as no doubt would have been the collapse of Egyptian power in Canaan.
However, the major event of this reign was the rejection of the invasion of “Sea Peoples.”
Invasion of the Sea Peoples: ~1177
One of the cascading consequences of the Trojan War was the great invasion of the so-called “Sea Peoples”, which modern criticism tends to regard migrants or refugees fleeing the wave of destruction. Some groups moved in chariots pulled by oxen, others used boats. The destruction is evident throughout the Levante Coast, from Ugarit and Alalakh in the north to Jaffa, Ašdod, and Aškelon to the south. But it is not detected at Byblos or Sidon, which is explained assuming that these maritime cities contributed their boats to the invading coalition. Since then, disappear the words “Canaan” and “Canaanites”, replaced by Peleset, or its variants “Philistines” or “Palestinians.”
Where Troy was defeated, and where the Hittite empire collapsed, Egypt managed to stand: the temple of millions of years of Ramses III (~ 1185-1153) and of the XXth Dynasty, praised in its magnificent bas-reliefs the glorious triumph of this Pharaoh to stop this sea-land invasion, which occurred the 8ht year of his reign (~ 1177).
The Peleset captured by Ramses III were marked with the name of the pharaoh and enrolled in the Egyptian army: “… I established them in the fortified places … I assigned them rations and clothing of the treasures and granaries each year …».
“Cartouches” with the royal names of Ramses III. First “cartouche”: User·Ma’at·ra Meri·amon (see Appendix 3), and second,”cartouche”: Ramses·hika·Iunu.
If, when the Exodus occurred were not yet installed the Philistines in Canaan, the year ~ 1177 would be date ante quem. But as the group of invasion led by Moses did a detour to the south of the Dead Sea, and attacked from Transjordania, nothing prevents that the coast were already at that time in the hands of the Philistines.
The question is when they became independent, for initially they would be mere foederati of the Pharaoh (formula later used under the Roman Empire with the Visigoths and other peoples). As we have seen, the power of Ramses III on both sides of the Jordan is proved, and also archaeological remains testifying to the Egyptian presence in Palestine during subsequent reigns seem to be found.
In short, the collapse of Egyptian power on Canaan had to occur during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses N, where N> 4. And it would give us a date post quem for the Exodus, as the Bible does not mention fighting against Egypt during the Hebrew occupation of Canaan.
Date of the abandonment of Pi-Ramses
Returning to the Delta, if the abandonment of Pi-Ramses, so sudden as the one of New Orleans in 2005, and like New Orleans, imposed by uncontrolled waters, coincided with the biblic Exodus, indeed it would have been a major event in the history of Egypt! In addition, if so, it would finally provide the date of the Exodus, which so much ink has spilled so far in vain.
The socio-political implications of the abandonment of Pi-Ramses, not to mention the economic, had to be huge, even for the unbridled pharaonic power. Just compare the economic and political cost today in a great country like the U.S.A. of the evacuation of the city of New Orleans, flooded suddenly as a result of a hurricane.
Egyptian sources do not directly and clearly inform us how was managed the tricky issue of relocation of the inhabitants of the desolate megalopolis of Pi-Ramses. But there are very clear indirect evidence.
The year 1130 that seems to have marked the end of the City of Ramses coincide (as the most probable dating) with the 3rd year of the reign of Ramses VII (~ 1133-1125) or the 7th year -and probably the last one-, if the dating was ~ 1137 to 1130.
In any case, between 40 and 50 years after the invasion of the Philistines (~1177), and their installation in what was to be known as the Philistine Pentapolis, which covered the South of Canaan.
The proposed identification of Merenptah or Ramses II as pharaohs of Exodus decayed with the finding of their mummies, now visitable in a special hall of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. Even when the Old Testament asserts that the egyptian army perished at the Reeds “sea”, it does not say explicitly that the Pharao did; if we nevertheless look for a Pharaoh whose mummy is lost, all the mummies from the XXth Dinasty are conserved, but two: the one of Ramses VII and the one of Ramses VIII.
What we know about Ramses VII –that he survived his firstborn son, and that his mummy has not been found so far – (See Appendix 3), and of Ramses VIII –whose burial place, if any, is unknown- does not contradict the story of the Pentateuch.
The geography of the Nile Delta
It is important to note that deltas vary so quickly – quickly on a geological scale-, that the map of the Nile Delta during the XXth Dynasty would certainly be very different from today. Let us consider this in more detail.
Fluvial dynamics and coastal dynamics
Modern coastal engineering has achieved significant progress in both fluvial dynamics and coastal dynamics. Work could be done to reconstruct the map of the Nile delta over the millennia, in the light of these two phenomena:
a) Fluvial dynamics
As we know in Aragon, where I write, river Ebro in the flat region 100 km upstream and downstream the city of Saragossa, snakes down, literally: it changes its course, it strangles meanders, leaving residual semi-lunar lakes called “galachos”, whose end is to dry up. The Nile is behaving the same way in the plains of its Delta. In both rivers and in any others of the Planet: the Garonne, the Mississippi, the river Meander (Turkey), who named the phenomenon, etc., we can glimpse through aerial photography the constant variations of their channels in plane areas, where they form meanders. Events of sudden channel changes often occur as a result of severe flooding, a yearly event in the Nile, and irregular in time in other rivers (Ebro, Indus, Yellow River, etc.). The arms and the mouths of the Nile have continued to alter its course over the centuries.
b) Coastal dynamics
Depending on whether or not there are tides, as well as the angle of incidence of the dominant waves, the rushing of the rivers develop deltas (such as the Nile and the Ebro), arrows (such as the one of Huelva), lagoons (called “albuferas” in Spain, “albufeiras” in Portugal, “estanys” or “étangs” in Languedoc), raffles (as in Peñíscola and Gibraltar), or other coastal formations.
The Nile, the largest river in the Mediterranean, a sea without tides, which developed a Delta where thousands of years earlier there had been an estuary, has been generating a string of “albuferas”, whose destiny is to silt in, giving way to a second string of “albuferas”, and so on –ainsi de suite.
Earthquakes, tsunamis, and subsidence of the seabed
Furthermore, eastern Mediterranean is an area of high seismic instability, where also many earthquakes generate tsunamis. The contemporary Greek seismologists have documented dozens of tsunamis only since the early XIXth century . The god Poseidon, “which removes the Earth,” embodies the impact that these phenomena caused in the psyche of ancient Greeks. Later on, the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus documented the terrible tsunami of July 21st, 365, which swept the coast of Alexandria and its region. Still in the VIth century, Alexandria was commemorating the “day of the horror.” Recent underwater discoveries off the city have found the remains of the Hellenistic Portus Magnus to about 6 m deep. Close by, the entire eastern part of the bay of Aboukir sank beneath the sea in shallow waters, apparently in the second half of the VIIIth century AD. Beneath the waves have been found the remains of the city of Canopus, and the great temple of Herakleon, along with the former Canopic mouth of the Nile (10).
All the above evidence proves that a tsunami could easily swallow an army running along the coasts of the Delta or surrounding areas.
In addition, the slow subsidence of the seabed in this region seems to indicate a general tilting of the delta, which for centuries has been turning around a north-south axis, and counterclockwise, slowly moving the mouths of the Nile from East to West. Taking advantage that no country in the world has preserved such a long and detailed sequence data on flooding as Egypt (for example, in the famous Palermo Stone), we can investigate, to better understand the events we are studying, the map of Delta those old days. From current Delta (whose contours are drawn in green on the attached map, as well as the two existing arms of the Nile, several “albuferas”, and the Suez Canal), we can deduce, with the help of satellite photographs, a first approximation to the shape of the Delta at that time, more than three thousand years ago.
Duration of the process of the Ten Plagues
Preceded the Exodus of the so-called Ten Plagues of Egypt, let’s see how long could have lasted this traumatic process. We know that between the First and Second Plague seven days were spent. Accepting the words of the Pentateuch after the Seventh Plague, hail: “It was destroyed the flax and barley, because barley was already in the stem and flax in flower, but wheat and buckwheat were not destroyed, by being late “(Ex. 9, 31-32) we can find the time of year in what the Plague happened. Since in Egypt flax blooms in late January, the barley begins to ripen in late February, and wheat ripes in late March or early April, the Seventh Plague, hail, must have happened between mid-January and mid-February.
According to sources, between the Seventh and the Tenth Plague elapsed one month and a half or two months, and probably will not have elapsed a much longer period between the First and Seventh Plague.
In short, biblical exegetes believe that the process of the Ten Plagues would have lasted at most three to four months, from mid-November to late March. This is about to say that the Plagues started shortly after the end of Akhet season, and that they lasted most of Peret season .
As mentioned ut supra (Fluvial dynamics), changes in the bed of the rivers use to happen during floods, becoming visible at the end of these. In other words, when the waters of the Nile descended at the end of Akhet year 1130, it became obvious that the «Waters of Ra», once navigable, had become a rosary of decreasing putrid pools, from which frogs were the first ones to flee, thus not devouring any more the larvae of mosquitos and other insects. Their proliferation caused ulcers, and these the death of the cattle and of many people, maybe by anthrax, thus establishing a chain of Plages, one after the other. Naturally, darkness or hail were due to different causes.
After all this sequence of catastrophies along Peret, Shemu arrived, drying the wells and forcing the quick way out of all the population of the enormous Pi-Ramsés, pressured by thirst.
Manning of chariots: date post quem
On leaving in pursuit of the Hebrews, “Pharaoh,” whoever it was, “took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, each car with three warriors” (Ex, 14, 7) (KJV and (1-a). This is a very interesting detail, because the Egyptian chariot (at least in the battle of Qadeš against the Hittites, in the 5th year of Rameses II) had a staff of two warriors: the charioteer, who held the reins, and the warrior itself said, and not three. In the bas-reliefs of the great temple of Amun at Karnak depicting the battle, repeatedly published (see eg., pp. 179, (7), Spanish translation), it is easy to distinguish the Hittite chariots, with a provision of three warriors, from the chariots of the Egyptians, with two warriors only.
So, one of two things: either the text of Exodus tells us badly, or indeed the Egyptian war chariot at the time of the Exodus had a staff of three fighters. It is not impossible that the inglorious role played by the Egyptians in the aforementioned battle induced a subsequent change in the allocation of the cars, imitating the Hittite design, proven more effective. Precisely, details irrelevant for the story such as this one, are who deserve more faith in traditions past. It is high likely that each car in the Exodus had just three warriors, and not one, nor two, nor four. Why would they invent this irrelevant detail? The Septuaginta translators wrote, in that verse 7 of chapter 14:
(And he took six hundred chosen chariots
and all the horses/cars of the Egyptians
and three warriors on all [of them]).
The above prove that the Exodus could not have been before the battle of Qadeš (5th year of Rameses II), nor before the date on which Egypt increased from two to three warriors the manning of each chariot. This would set a date of Exodus even more recent. Let Egyptologists find out that date, and we will have one more benchmark.
Ramses III, the oppressor of Bedouins
On the other hand, Dr. Bietak has published in (15) an extremely acute observation that had gone unnoticed to the diggers themselves: two “four rooms” reeds-made huts, whose sculpted shallow foundations on the rock were found on the west bank of Thebes (the most typical Israeli experts believe this type of houses “four rooms”), were inhabited by Israeli workers, perhaps slaves. They were allegedly involved in the demolition of the temple of millions of years of Ay and his successor Horemheb, most likely ordered by Ramses IV (~1153-1146). The slavery of these individuals  would be documented in the Great Papyrus Harris, where Ramses III, after boasting of his victory over the Sea Peoples, added: “… I destroyed the people of Seir among the Bedouin (Šosu) tribes; I devastated their stores, their people, their property, and their cattle, in no given number, I immobilized them and brought them into captivity, as the tribute of Egypt. I gave them to the Ennead of gods as slaves for their houses (temples).” (Quote from (15)).
Accordingly, we can expect to find more huts of this kind in different parts of Egypt. Therefore, Ramses III may have been the oppressor Pharaoh mentioned in Exodus. When a power is at war with another ethnic group, it tends to distrust those living in their territory belonging to that ethnic group. There are recent cases.
A late dating of the Exodus?
All the above allows us to suggest the possibility of a late dating of the Exodus, so considering that Psalm 78 (verse 12) gives the stormy interviews between Moses and the nameless Pharaoh, just in the city of Dja’net / Zoan / Tanis , whose construction may have begun. Although strictly speaking, this data only proves one thing: that the received text, was written after the founding of Tanis, this Psalm supporting the assumption of a late Exodus.
The precise date would be much more difficult to determine, since construction of the new capital, and transfer to it of the great stone monuments of Pi-Ramses, would be delayed for several decades. In effect, the formal establishment of Tanis as the new capital took place during the long reign of Ramses XI (~ 1094-1064), specifically in year 19th (~ 1075), ie. about 55 years after the abandonment of Pi-Ramses.
Ramses XI, with his long reign of 30 years, was the last monarch of the XXth Dynasty. In its 19th year, in addition to the installation of the court in the new capital of Tanis, Egypt was officially established in the era of wehem mesut, literally, “repetition of births” or, if preferred, Renaissance era.
But this is a separate issue that I shall, perhaps, try later. END.
The “Victory Stele” of Merenptah (~ 1208) date ante quem?
In the 5th year of the reign of Merenptah (~ 1213-1203), son and successor of Ramses II the Great, Egypt rejected an invading coalition formed by two Libyan tribes allied to Luka, Šarden, Akiwaša, Šekleš and Turša; in total, seven allies. The Egyptian victory was commemorated in the granite stela
Royal “cartouches” of Pharaoh Merenptah. First “cartouche”: Ba · in · ra Meri · amon; second “cartouche “: Merenptah hotep · hir · Ma’at
whose photo has been published in (12), found at Thebes in 1896. Although the data in a whole are of great interest, they are skirted here to focus on his last line, referring to Asia, which Egyptologists translated: “… Every evil afflicts Canaan, Aškelon is deported, Gazer is conquered, Yeno’am is no more there, Israel is wasted, with no seed, Ja’ru has become Egypt’s widow …”. The text in italics is read in the before-last line of the stela. Aškelon, Gezer and Yeno’am were Canaanite cities (see map). Ja’ru designates the Syro-Palestinian region.
Therefore, the year ~1208 had Israelites in Canaan, ergo the Exodus would have been prior to that date. But in reality, the text does not necessarily proves that finding. In fact:
Hieroglyphic script wrote only the consonants, and to some words it used to postpone an additional sign not to be read, but whose function was to clarify the meaning of the preceding word. This sign is called a determinative. Thus, the word “MR” (pyramid), was followed by the schematic drawing of a pyramid. Well, in the stela, which is read from right to left, the determinative following the word YiSRRI3R (where the transcription of the hieroglyphic sign 3 “vulture” represents a consonant sound that does not exist in Indo-European languages, similar to that shown by the Arabic sign hamza) included, on three vertical lines (the Egyptian plural), a man and a woman. It would, therefore, be about people, not nation or city.
Some Egyptologists are inclined to locate this YiSRRI3R, identifiable with Israel according to most experts, in the mountainous interior of Canaan.
Two Biblical references include the name of pharaoh Merenptah. They cite both a source located northwest of Jerusalem, called the source of “Neptoah” or “Mineptah” (Joshua 15, 9 and 18,15). Archaeology has proven that in times of Merenptah resided there an Egyptian garrison. The existence of the locality and of the garrison seem to prove the Egyptian control of the territory during this reign.
Fourth: The rule of Ramses III in Transjordania and in Northern Cisjordania
The site of Tell es-Sa’idiya later commented, and the statue of Ramses III found at Bet-San (Tell el-Husn), proves Egyptian control of both banks of the Jordan under this pharaoh, which invalidates Merenptah arguments about forty years earlier.
The literality of the text describes (in its harsher interpretation) the extermination of a proto-Israel executed by a Merenptah quite inflexible: other documents claim that the battle against the invading Libyans and their allies left 6,000 dead and 9,000 enemy prisoners. At the foot of the window of his palace at Menphis were deposited the hands and the genitals of the dead enemies, as proof of victory. The prisoners would be executed until the last, and executed -cruelty never seen before or since in Egypt-, by impalement. Would the Holy Qur’an (38,12 and 89,10) allude to it when writing Pharaoh “of the stakes” (in Arabic, du-l-awtad)?
But if we do not accept that interpretation of the stela’s text, but the more likely that the tribe was hit but survived, it might well be assumed that one or more groups that later left Egypt were associated with the remnants of that tribe and other tribes already settled Canaan. All of them, twelve in number, would have made what in Greek world was called an “amphictyony” or alliance made sacred before a deity in his sanctuary. Thus, according to Joshua, 24, the Alliance of the Twelve Tribes would have been solemnized in the assembly of Šechem, on the basis of the Ten Commandments written by Moses. To commemorate the Alliance, Joshua stood there a large stone. And the first sanctuary -in the Tent of Meeting- was installed (Joshua 18, 1) – at Siloh (today Seilun, some 20 km south of Nablus).
For all the foregoing, the Merenptah stela does not prove that ~1208 is date ante quem for the biblical Exodus.
The question marks of Tell es-Sa’idiya
This source of Transjordania, in the current Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, involves, in our opinion, a great interest for the topic under study: the dating of the Exodus.
It is located (see map) halfway between Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea, within walking distance of river Jordan, and has its own source of drinking water. The tell is located between two tributaries of the Jordan River: Yarnak to the North and Yabbok to the South, which limit the land of Gilead, which was won by the very Moses in person, assigning it to a half tribe of Manasseh.
He was surveyed in 1942 by N. Glueck. The war situation in the region prevented further work until twenty years later. Between 1964 and 1966 excavated there James Pritchard, from the University of Pennsylvania (USA), which cleared the spring and the pool. After a new nineteen-year hiatus, Jonathan Tubb, from the British Museum, resumed field work, which found no treasure, but something much more valuable: that in Stratum XII, the area was controlled by the Pharaohs of the XXth Dynasty (founded by Setnakht, it also includes the Pharaohs from Ramses III onwards: Ramses IV, V, and so on until Ramses XI, with whom, as is well known, the cited Dynasty was extinct). In addition to a wall, a palace complex has been excavated, as well as a large house, all around the significant water infrastructure referred to above. In the cemetery have been open more than four hundred tombs, most of which are completely Egyptian, with many bodies wrapped in linen bandages. Burials have also been found that could indicate the presence there of the “Sea Peoples.” View (13) for details.
The complex was destroyed by iron and fire at the end of s. XII BC.
Archaeology must clarify the meaning of the Egyptian presence at Tell es-Sa’idiya in this historic moment, presence always valuable when establishing dating. Because it is noticeable whether Egyptian rule would have been there before the Exodus, and the destruction of Egyptian Tell es-Sa’idiya a result of it.
Ramses VII (~ 1133-1125)
Given the possibility that Pharaoh Ramses VII were the Pharaoh of the Exodus, we collect in these notes the news that we could find about him.
He was the sixth Pharaoh of the XXth Dynasty. His rule must not had lasted over 7 years. Other dates for his reign are ~1138-1131. Its original name was not Ramses, but he adopted it in the act of his enthronement.
Quo nomine vis vocare? (By what name do you want to be called?) asks the cardinal chamberlain to the pope elected by the Sacred College. Pharaoh also, at his enthronement (and, sometimes, in significant occasions), adopted a new name. As these titles used to condense his “government program”, let us see what names adopted the seventh of the Ramses the day of his inauguration:
He chosed as name of “Nesu bity” (traditionally translated as “king of Upper and Lower Egypt”, the term is given now a more subtle meaning, but always dual: Nesu indicates the divine and immortal Pharaoh, while bity indicates the human and mortal Pharaoh) on the first of these two “cartouches”:
Anyone versed in hieroglyphs will read effortlessly in the one at the left User·Ma’at·r Setep·en· Ra Meri·amon (“Powerful is the righteousness (Ma’at) of Ra, Chosen of Ra, Beloved of Amun”), identical to that of Ramses II. This equality of title seems to suggest that he choosed as political model Ramses the Great, referring to Ra’s righteousness rather than mentioning his mercy. Just as Amon was the god of Thebes, and in general, of southern Egypt, the god of the north was Ra. In addition, the Egyptians designated as “waters of Ra” the pelusiac arm of the Nile, at whose shores had Ramses II had his palace.
He chosed as name of “Sa-Ra” (second cartouche, on the right) that of Ramses itef·Amon Neter·hika·Iunu, which informs us that wanted to be considered “Ramses descendant of Amun, ruler of the god of Iunu.” The city of Iunu, in Greek Heliopolis, in the Bible is On, was the Delta city which hold the main sanctuary of Ra.
The power of Ramses VII would be effective in the Delta, and little more than theoretical in the South, because we know that the lands of Amun made to this god and his priests, extremely rich and powerful. An asymmetric situation with the diminished power of the Crown, which would undoubtedly be a source of tensions of all kinds.
He chosed as “Nebty” name (cartridge ommitted) that of Me·Kemet wefja·sety (“Protector of Egypt, feared by foreigners”), which seems to imply a strong line of reaction against a foreign threat, but which one?
If the premature death of the firstborn, which broke once again the line of succession (as had happened to Ramses II, Seti II, Ramses III and Ramses V, among others), would have constituted an additional source of concern for the Pharaoh, it would have been with much reason, as he would eventually be succeeded by his uncle, Ramses VIII.
The tomb of Ramses VII
The most important monument of this king is his grave, known as KV1 in the Valley of the Kings. It is a modest tomb that has been open for centuries (it contains graffiti in Greek and Latin).
KV1 is too far from the bulk of the graves of the Valley of the Kings, in a sub-valley known simply as the valley of the Tomb of Ramses VII. This isolation has resulted in not being popular among tourists. The royal grave closer to it, in a southerly direction, is KV2. Its design, featuring a straight axis, is oriented in a northwesterly direction, and is very simple: an entrance ramp, a corridor, and the burial chamber itself. Further on, it can be guessed the beginning of a second chamber, which was unfinished, probably due to the unexpected death of the king. The coffin had to be placed in the chamber, enlarged for the occasion. The second room, just outlined, was used to house the canopic vessels of the deceased.
It is anomalous that his tomb at Thebes remained unfinished the 7th year of the reign, when it was common for pharaoh’s tombs to be finished the second year of his ascension to the throne. This fact, coupled with the “strike” of workers that describes the Turin papyrus, confirms the existence of so serious economic difficulties, that they came to affect a privileged group, as were the workers of the royal tombs of Thebes. Egyptology reports that the shortage of wheat resulted in tripling its price in this reign.
Excavation of KV1
The first excavation was conducted in 1906 by Edward Ayrton. Although we knew that previous visits had cataloged and studied this grave beforehands, Ayrton’s expedition was in charge of reopening and cleaning the site.
Only under the leadership of Edwin Brock, from the Museum of Ontario , was conducted a larger study, completed with the adequation of the tomb for beeing open to the public.
As foreseen (KV1 was used for many years by Coptic monks and hermits), there were not found many objects in the tomb: Only some ušebtis, the remains of amphorae or ostraka, belonging to different periods. The grave is merely carved in the floor stone and covered with a slab, which was been broken by one side to reach the mummy and the riches that she would hide. This massive lid is decorated with figures of Isis, Nephthys, Serket and the four sons of Horus .
The mummy of King
No one knows the circumstances of his death nor his mummy has been found to date, although there were four faience vessels with the king’s name in the cache near DB320, in Deir el-Bahari, which may suggest that the his is one of the unidentified bodies found in that cache.
None of this information is repugnant to what the Bible attributes to the Pharaoh of the Exodus and his environment.
(1) “Biblia de Jerusalén”; (1-a) 1st edition in Spanish (nihil obstat of 1966), translated having present the French text fixed by the École Biblique de Jérusalem; Editorial Desclée de Brouwer, Brussels; (1-b) 2nd edition in Spanish (nihil obstat of 1975), Éditions du Cerf, Paris, 1973; there is no mention here of the number of warriors over the chariot.
(2) “Ur”, by Sir Leonard Woolley, Collection The King Penguin Books, Edited by Penguin Books. Ltd.; London, 1946.
(3) “Y la Biblia tenía razón”, por Werner Keller; Ediciones Omega, 9ª edición; Barcelona 1961.
(4) “Archaelogy of the Bible Lands”, by Magnus Magnusson; editor: The Bodley Head Ltd.; London 1977.
(5) “The Exodus Enigma”, by Ian Wilson; editor: Wiedenfeld & Nicholson; London, 1985.
(6) “Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos”, by Dr. Manfred Bietak; editor: The British Museum Press; London 1996.
(7)”Ramsés II: la véritable histoire”, by Christiane Desroches Noblecourt; Éditions Pygmalion; Paris 1996.
(8) “Ägypten und Levante”, by Dr. Manfred Bietak; (in German); editor: International Journal for Egyptian Archaelogy; Viena, 1999.
(9) Kenneth Kitchen is author of many publications (see Internet); among them: “The reliability of the Old Testament”; editor: William Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.
(10) “Tesoros sumergidos de Egipto”, catalog of the great exhibition (Madrid, 2008). Edites Franck Goddio, with David Fabre.
(11) “The Hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt”, by Aidan Dodson; editor: New Holland Publishers, Ltd
(12) “The Seventy Great Mysteries of Ancient Egypt”, by Bill Manley; editor: Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 2003.
(13) “Archaeological Encyclopaedia of the Holy Land”, entry “SAIDIYEH (TEL ES-)”.
(14) “Arqueología de la Biblia”, by James Hoffmeier, editor: SAN PABLO; Madrid, 2008.
(15) “Israelites Found in Egypt”, by Dr. Manfred Bietak; Spanish translation by Ana Quesada; and “An Iron-Age Four-Room House in Ramesside Egypt”, Eretz-Israel, 22 (1999), pp. 10-12.
(16) “Qatna, el enigma de la ciudad perdida”; Revista “Geo”, nº 283, August 2010, pp. 49-72.
— OOo —
 Critics have set the chronology of the Nineteenth Dynasty in doubt for a few years. Although the aforementioned Introduction to the Pentateuch accepts the years 1290-1224 BC for the start-end of the reign of Ramses II the Great, we preferred the low dating: 1279-1213. For the XXth Dynasty, the most modern chronology of the recent work (11) by Aidan Dodson.
 Upon discovering and excavating the city-state of Ebla in the Syrian region of Aleppo, a rich library of clay tablets was found. Several artifacts, including an alabaster vase with the name of Pharaoh Pepi I (Sixth Dynasty), allow to date Ebla from s. XXVII BC. Kings were elected for periods of seven years. But one of them, named Ebrum, was king (according to Pettinato, but not by other researchers) for twenty-seven years, then retired from politics and lead a religious reformation. Could this Ebrum be identified with the figure of Abram who, according to the Bible, changed his name into Abraham? (~1850 BC).
 According to Galanopoulos (1960), between 1801 and 1958 were recorded in Eastern Mediterranean as many as 482 earthquakes of intensity greater than six, of which 170 of intensity equal to or greater than 7. Twenty of them generated tsunamis, where 6 of them catastrophic. According to Pararas-Carayannis (1973), earthquakes and tsunamis have hit the continental and insular Greece since ancient times, causing catastrophic damage to the Minoan world and other ancient settlements. Many of these phenomena affected the Egyptian coast.
 Experts affirm taht there was no slavery in Egypt in the Greco-Roman sense of the term, “slave” for life and hereditary (in Greek, “doulos“), on which the master had the right to life and death, and who could buy or sell them. The Egyptian language had no word to designate this odious concept. Egyptians used the words, “hem” or “bak” to designate workers or state officials, even of the highest ranking. Even the Wazir, head of all of them, was considered “bak” of the Pharaoh.
 Avaris is the Greek version of Egyptian Hat waret, where both “h” were deaf, thus giving “Hawara”. There is a Hawara in El Fayum, in Egypt and, astonishly, a Fabara in Estern Aragon, in Spain.
 It is anachronistic, quite obviously, to use Gregorian calendar to define the period of the year of beginning and end of the Ten Plagues. It happens, nevertheless, that Julian calendar, from which ours is mere retouch, is basically the Egyptian pharaonic calendar. It divided the year in twelve months of 30 days each, comprising three seasons of four months each: The first season, Akhet (“flood”), started end of June-begining of July; the second season was Peret (“exit”, of the lands out of the water); and the last one was Shemu (“summer”, that is, water shortage), thus closing the year. Each month had three weeks of ten days. To these 360 days, 5 epagomenous days were added. This was equivalent to compute years of 365 days, while in reality the tropic year of our Planet lasts 365,2422 days. Such computing incurred in an error of 0,2422 days per year. The temple of Ra in Heliopolis was in charge of observing the heliacal rising of the star Sothis, today called Sirius, rising that initially coincided with the beginning of Akhet. Between two consecutive heliacal risings a sidereal year of 365,25636 days elapses.
 It is worth noting, nevertheless, that no mice Plague was mentioned, even in a cerealistic land, due indeed to the efficacity of egyptian cats, which maintained under control in these difficult circumstances the population of little rodents. Cat was a sacred animal in Egypt, under the protection of goddess Baset o Bst. Yet today, many of us still call our cats with the customary “bs, bs, bs”, thus invoking, without knowing it, the said goddess.
The Hyksos worshiped only one God. Genetically, their DNA is tracably similar to the Danaans !the Danaans who became the Dumnoni/Domnann Celts of Britain! As is stated above, they migrated to the Bosphrus before it was flooded [circa 11,500 B.C.], and down into the vast-area today seen as Armenia and also Gobleki Tepe
They were warriors. If the expulsion from Eden
is really a metaphor for the agricultural period of Our Last History after the Ice-Age
, then indeed, Gobleki Tepe and the region therabouts (as far as IRAN) is indeed Eden as revealed by David Rohl
. In this prospective, this also confirms what we now know: that the Hittite language has all the same roots as old English, which is how they cracked the code of the language of the Hittite tablets from their vast hidden libraries. The origins of their written language can be traced also to the Vinca Alphabet
, which, by thousands of years, PREDATES the Sumerian. Abraham and Lot, who were from Haran originally, were decendants of this culture which has become known today as the Hittites (by reasoning of their capital of Hythusa).
They, the Bible tells us, migrated to Canaan/ the area aboutJordan and the Dead Sea;
but because of a quarrel with his brother Esau, Abraham’s grandson Jacob [to be known as “Israel”],
went to the area of Salem, [the area ruled byMelchezidek
at the time when Abraham
lived], to marry. Abraham’s great-grandson was Joseph, who became the great Vizier of Egypt
(whose dynasty can now be proven to be the Hyksos Kings
). Eventually, after their Egyptian expulsion, the Hebrew clan immigrated (through the Sinai Desert) back to the lands of Canaan
, [given as their “God-mandated right” to re-conquer their Isaacian-ancestral promised “homeland”]. Centuries later, a Judaic decendant, named David, conquered the city of Salem, renaming it Jerusalem [the peace of God] .From his lineage, came forth Our God and Lord, Jesus Christ.
has its origins in the Black Sea are of Anatolia or the Causcasus Mountais. Hammer et al (2008) places its age at 18, 500 years. Distributuin maps of genetic plate Rb1 indicate an Anatolian (Indo-European) paternal connection with Egypt’s 18th Dystasty (Akhanaton and King Tut).
2005, SARICH, MIELI: “Race, the realty of Human Differences”
“Rb1″ Haplogroup has it irigins in Euro-West Asia.
3/4 of Englishmen were originally Basques, coming to the British Isles between 15,000 – 7, 500 years ago [when the Ice-sheet retreated], according to Stephen Oppenheimer.
Basques : The Hittites originated from the Pyanées, went north to the Isles and eventually East to Gobekli Tepe. The Hyksos were the children of Israel (Hebrao) who came to Egypt by Invitation of their brother Yuhu (Joseph), the Egyptian Overseer. Their grand-ancestor was Abraham. Abram and Lot were from Haran. They were Hittite. Moses, who became Pharoah, was of this lineage. When the pagan’s resisted the worship of the “One-God” ATON (Adonoi) they pushed the Hyksos out of Egypt along with anyone who followed ATON. (This is the story of Genesis.)
THE HITTITES’ writings CONCERNING the OLDER forbidden EGYPTIAN PRACTICES of incest:
the Hattusites recognized these obscenities when speaking against the Hayasa-Azzi, for:
In a treaty signed with Hukkana [king of the Hayasa-Azzi], Suppiluliuma I mentions a series of obligations of civil right:
“My sister, whom I gave you in marriage has sisters; through your marriage, they now become your relatives. Well, there is a law in the land of the Hatti. Do not approach sisters, your sisters-in law or your cousins; that is not permitted. In Hatti Land, whosoever commits such an act does not live; he dies. In your country, you do not hesitate to marry your own sister, sister-in law or cousin, because you are not civilized. Such an act cannot be permitted in Hatti.”
In esoteric Egyptology, Zep Tepi was known as the ‘First Time’, often called the Golden Age of Alchemy, when visiting ‘godlike beings’ inhabited the land and shared their advanced spiritual technology that could shape-shift energy and transform matter.According to legend, the illuminated beings traveled from the neighboring star, Sirius, and established the original Sirian-Egyptian civilization.
The ancient Egyptians could access the untapped power of Zero Point energy, the source of Creation (genesis) in our Universe, and the secret Sirian technology required to shift gravitational fields and particulate matter.
Zep Tepi is the ancient method of Zero Point Alchemy, activating the vacuum dynamics within the Vortex of Creation (Black Hole of Galactic Core), where positive and negative energy collides to destroy matter and recreate new.
This is the lost “crystal-based” technology, of which Moses was initiate (as a pharonic-heir),�once called the Arc of the Covenant. All students learned how to activate small-scale singularity, or mini-black hole power.