Green Victory extremely Soon !

An early portrait of Mu

The Muslim life is shaped by acts of prayer which, in turn, are shaped by the movements of the solar system, and the rolling of the planet beneath our feet. A sense of harmony, we hope, is the result. Science can alienate us from the holiness of nature. It can teach us how to destroy nature. But we should thank it too, for giving us more reasons to feel awe, humility, and even gratitude.”

(Abdal-Hakim Murad)

Mu teacher our-marabout-muammar-al-qathafi

Truth about Muammar al-Qathafi


Speech of Dr. Hamza Thami in the green channel 7 on any fire in 2014

13 JULY 2012:

“Green Mountain | _ Tripoli _ | posted.
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=289072204541127&set=a.157905070991175.32493.100003150495041&type=1&theater
Muammar says:
“God willing, we will edit the jihad and we will return to Libya and Alkhdharaa flag. Our mission in life is to purge Libya “Rue Rue” from the filth and unclean.”Call of resistance
https://www.facebook.com/Al.Hadba.Al.Kadra
FROM MUAMMAR AL-QATHAFI himself:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yo4iq7Khxs&feature=player_embedded
Appelez-2012الهضبة الخـــضـرآء ـ|_ طرابلس _|ـ
بأذن الله سنقوم بالجهاد و سنقوم بتحرير ليبيا و سترجع الراية الخضرااء. مهمتنا في الحياة هي تطهير ليبيا “زنقة زنقة” من الدنس و الأنجاس.

____________________________

Mouammar Al-Qathafi Knight Knight

الفارس معمر القافيKnight
العقيد في عيد الفاتح “سرت”
Ajoutée par Al-itaher ali ibrahim le 01 mai in 2008
Colonel in the festival of light “walked


Ali Salem DLF Thug 59:53 Speech of Dr. Hamza Thami in the green channel 5 on any fire in 2014
de Ali Salem DLF Cutthroat

Mu Lion-packed at dawn

_____________________

BASIC PEOPLE’s CONGRESS ELVIS BUCKY FREE logo:

Our spirits embracing heaven soon start victory ceremony.

  • معنوياتنا تعانق السماء في القريب العاجل تبدأ مراسم النصر المبين .

Miss Keane Council holding it accountable for what balabayat born Aisha bin Niran

even alkzaviat what alzentaniat Suad alsaleh yabal Elly what answer in elatris all.
.مسـكين يحاسبها بالعبايات ما يحاسب ولد عائشة بن نيران حتي القذافيات ما جابنه يابال الزنتانيات اللي ما يجيبوا في التريس بكل

Poor call it to account Balabayat to be held accountable Born Aisha bin fire until Alqmaviac what
Japinh Aabal what Alzentaniat who answer all the dampers.
—-

LIBYA RAT NEWS:

  • Tawfiq _ National Alliance member alshahibi city East medicine shortly before on the island:-Scenario # splendor for _ politicalFrequently, there are groups today surrounded the Conference Hall. Wemnao members of Congress from getting out, they said they were not tsoto to bring down the Government of Zaidane, you won’t pass, and these groups are such acts in agreement with some members of Congress. I tell them that the impeachment scenario will not be repeated, and Outlook will not be enforced by force. But they will increase only complicate matters.
    # Age his father.توفيق_الشهيبي عضو التحالف الوطني عن مدينة طبـرق قبل قليل على الجزيرة :-سيناريو #العز ل_السياسييتكرر , هناك مجموعات اليوم حاصرت قاعة المؤتمر .. ومنعو أعضاء المؤتمر من الخروج , وقالو لهم إن لم تصوّتو على إسقاط حكومة زيدان فإنكم لن تخرجو , وهذه المجموعات تقوم بهذه الأفعال بالاتفاق مع بعض أعضاء المؤتمر .. وأقول لهم أن سيناريو العزل لن يتكرر , ولن يتم فرض أجندتكم بالقوّة .. بل ستزيدون الأمور تعقيدآ فقط ..
    #عصــــــــــــــابة ..
    Tawfik _ Shuhaibi member of the National Alliance for the city of Tobruk by the few on the island: –
  • Scenario # _ Political isolation is repeated, there are groups today surrounded the conference hall .. Mnau and members of Congress to go out, and they said that they did not Tsoto to overthrow the government of Zidane you will not Takrjo, and these groups are such acts in agreement with some members of Congress .. And I tell them that the scenario will not be repeated isolation, will not be imposed by force Ojndtkm .. Stzadon but only complicate matters ..
    # Gang ..
 FB VIDEO:la vidéo de Tabu sons of the desert.News reporter: a discussion about the National Congress in its evening item to withdraw confidence from the government to Zaidane:
Now members of the National Conference trapped inside the conference hall and prevent them
from leaving by force by some groups …For the purpose of the imposition of no-confidence on Zaidane!!
Abdel Fattah Hablos” a member of the National Conference of the year.
National Conference boxed Otishan Group by demanding the withdrawal of confidence
The head of the government, “Ali Zaidane”.
مراسل النبأ: حول مناقشة المؤتمر الوطني في جلسته المسائية لبند سحب الثقة من الحكومة علي زيدان.

News Mkmadas:
URGENT: Comment picket guard oil facility for three days, and the opening of the highway.

Special Forces reports:

Trip members of the Libyan Special Forces who were sent to the cycle of military outside Libya, crashes.

This is the cause of disruption and sums up the problem between the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. !!!!

Happy Near Year’s– Your Tax Dinars Are Paying For Predator Drones That Slaughter Libya’s own Innocent Civilians
Posted by “DownWithTyranny” on 01 January 2014
From our partners at “DownWithTyranny!”
https://www.facebook.com/WkaltWadyDynarAlakhbaryt/posts/271078846382115
رئيس الوزراء الليبي على زيدان لفرانس 24 : الطائرات بدون طيار في الاجواء الليبية هى ملك للجيش الليبي
Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zaidane told “France 24”:

“drones in the Libyan airspace belongs to the Libyan army !!”

“Atmosphere of the country”:
Ali Zaidane: Snsmi tomorrow Amidi Municipality white Shahat.

Atef Shelmani (News Agency of Libya today):

Ali Zaidane:

Puppet Prime Minister Ali Zaidane of Libya declares his readiness to resign from office immediately; but, only

IF YOU HAVE THE APPROPRIATE ALTERNATE ALTERNATIVE” through the Conference !!”.
“There will be an important reshuffle next week
And includes the Interior and Local Government and several ministries, will be selected orientation or political party, but it will be a technocrat.
We will not leave the country in the wind will not recognize and will not leave the state imposes on Ojeda Shi and this government are not changed by 200 or more, even if the guns with them because they are elected by the people and represents the country are completed and achieved a number of accomplishments.
We prepared the law that withdrew confidence from the government For National Congress take responsibility in government Egged urgent
We have no desire and did not write Altarbouk we left Libya at this stage
Do not talk about what the government is doing, while not talking about the achievements made by the government and the obstacles facing routers and government.”

  • the achievements of “17 February”:

    Photo de Christella Bernardene Krebs. 
Agency Mermaid news Mermaid News Agency:
Abdullah big deputy in the National Congress says a hearing on “Sunday,” will be the next interval. But does not agree to bring down the puppet government, “Ali Zaidane.“Wednesday 01/08/2014 AD said, “Abdullah the Great,” a deputy in the National Congress General of the Agency: Thursday, will meet the main blocs in the consultative meetings to try to reach a consensus on the withdrawal of confidence from the NATO puppet-government, “Ali Zaidane.” Alternative dispute over the post in the NATO puppet-government, “Ali Zaidane” is Mayatal consensus on toppling the puppet-government.Most claimants bring down the puppet government bloc, “Loyalty to the Martyrs” and the ‘Muslim’ Brotherhood block “Justice and Development”. Said yes we went out of the back doors of the headquarters of the National Congress was not able to get out of the main door to the presence of threatening to impose bring down “the puppet-government,” attendance at the meeting Yesterday’s deputies did not exceed 120 deputy. might reach a consensus to reform the puppet government.Edit: Mohammed Shafi.

Break into the Ministry of Justice shortly before now, by a total of
Number approximately thirty people, and they are now within the ministry
And no additional details yet….

The attack on the Ministry of Justice in the capital for the time being or any information

so far about the organization, which they attacked the ministry within the ministry now.

Solidarity news agency ..
Unidentified storming the Ministry of Justice building south of the capital
Unknown assailants stormed the building of the Ministry of Justice, the interim government, on Wednesday afternoon, in the area of ​​the farmer south of the capital Tripoli.
And explained a source from the ministry for “news agency Solidarity” that intruders do not carry any type of weapons,
and it seems they are following someone in the state as they talked about the financial benefits of their own.
It is noteworthy that some ministry employees left the building immediately after entry of intruders
with a number of other remained to negotiate with them.

THE RATS FORCE COMPENSATION FOR THEIR FREED CRIMINALS, BY GUNPOINT!

The Ministry of Justice will proceed to pay compensation of political prisoners during the reign of the GREAT JAMAHIRIYA..

That’s why yesterday who broke into the ministry because the Minister of Justice did not reveal the names on the sign and duration for each person .. Because the fraud … But yesterday, the armed group is free to sign detected at gunpoint ..

Gateway Libya  continues by commentating:

“Hand Icolo State does not have to floss salaries because oil is locked …

And at the same time begins with the distribution of the compensation money to the time of al-Qathafi’s al-Qaeda prisoners ..
How in God Vhmuna story? .. Qlto much the pension Flus.”

Rashidmamed Rashid Alrashidaan says,

“this is funding al-Qaida.

 

 

بوابة ليبيا Libya Gate

من ناحية يقولو الدولة ليس لديها فلوس لمرتبات لان النفط مقفل … و في نفس الوقت يبداء توزيع اموال التعويضات علي السجناء فترة حكم القذافي ..
كيف القصة بالله فهمونا .. موش قلتو معاش فيه فلوس
راشدمحمد راشد الراشديين: هذا من تمويل القاعدة

Center of the country (downtown):
Mahariv the Minister of Electricity, totaled thefts attacks on the property of the

Ministry of Electricity of cars and cables and towers, etc., amounted

to one billion and one hundred million dinars.

SEEMS THAT THE GNC is bribing voters by fulfilling their promised scholarships and the “need funds for the Family”:

Social Affairs decided to give the family as well as for the disadvantaged, including previously
“Atmosphere of the country” – Abdul Salam customary

The Ministry of Social Affairs as well as exchange Family Family:

Those who did not obtain by in the past as a result of lack of access to the national number and they had a grievance filed by students of the branches of the ministry.

A spokesman for the ministry Abdulaati:

It will be disbursed premium for the children of Libyan women married to foreigners, provided their stay in Libya.

He said Abdul-Ati addition to the six remaining months of the past year will be spent for all beneficiaries, according to the amount in the account, which is not enough for only two or three months.

Abdulaati pointed out that in the case of Sylt and the Ministry of Finance, a sufficient amount of one billion and fifty million dinars, the ministry will spend the premium for all families for the last six months.

He noted that Abdul Ati exempt girls over the age of eighteen, and even housewives ministry is obtained on the system data from the Labor Department showing the married and the Ministry of Higher Education found that students who acquire that scholarship.

It is noteworthy that in addition to the family spent the first time on 07.07.2013 on the occasion of the anniversary of the initial election to the National Congress.

News that the government will insert three wings of the group Sufyan bin Qmo, based in Derna, Benghazi and Tunisia,
on the black list of terrorist organizations.
The Libyan government will announce soon that Qmo and two other militia leaders are terrorists ..
(News Agency of Libya today)
Sufian Qmo Qmo Sufyan ibn al-Qaeda

IS Abubakar Alrajabana TELLING US ANYTHING WE DID NOT ALREADY KNOW?

Abubakar Alrajabana a member of the National Security Committee of the National Conference year:

“There are terrorist groups, criminal takfiri especially in some cities in the eastern region and is responsible for the assassinations in Benghazi.”

____________________

TRIPOLI:

JANZOUR:


Gateway Libya Libya Gate:

..
* Street shortly before 2000 – Janzour

Young age wandering around in his car and shooting randomly led to:

Injured young man runs a shop in Lome materials home was shot in the neck and the prospect of death.

Wounding a bystander who was shot in the thigh.

Wounding many cars gunshot wounds and dismay to passersby and shopkeepers.

Thankfully enables young street 2000 arrest of the offender and surrender.

Najat local council head hunter center ((Ali Alhmala)) of the impact of exposure to death trying to steal his car and shooting him dead zone janzour ((angle Gomorrah)) and has a gunshot wound in the thigh and Ladd criminals fled ……
It also deny Matnaqlth Facebook pages and the media as an assassination attempt also bear full responsibility for page news ……..
(The great Rishvana / Great WRishvana)

The number of students from the University of Tripoli, blocking the main gate of the University of the claim,

regardless of financial grant ..

U.of Tripoli renewed

(picture shows al-Fateh U. in Tripoli as it was renewed in 2008)

TRIPOLI al-FATEH UNIVERSITY ‘s  FACULTY OF MEDICINE:

Only three colleges User Grants handed at the TRIPOLI al-Fateh  University’s Faculty of Medicine and the arts and media law by the words of Professor Abdul Salam Elmessallati .. The university president threatens to separate the rest of the college registrars in the case of increasing delays in the delivery menus!
– (General Federation of University Students Tripoli) –

_____________________

GREEN NAFUSA WESTERN MOUNTAINS:

RISHVANA:

Channel globe on Facebook:
Today will be, God willing run station WiMAX Balzhra – Aljafarah ………….. This unless there is an emergency postpone it and God.
—-

ZINTAN:

Photos and news from Rishvana reports:Department staff presented passports Zintan today to attempt an armed robbery in the road link between Tuibih the corner where the exposure of employees to heavy gunfire in order to steal a car that belong to the Passport Department
Staff were on the way back from the city of Tripoli and in the important work of the formal and in stable condition after undergoing hospital treatment Zintan.
Channel Gado free **** Jadu free channel:
Injury to an employee of Zintan passports in an attempt to Taradw armed robbery in the corner by the link between the mountain.

——-

GHARYAN:

“Urgent”
In a telephone call one of the security officials in the city of Gharyan assured us that he will be in
tomorrow morning to open the road link between Gharyan – Azizia, did not clarify any further information on the subject.
(“Gharyan satellite channel”)
________________________

MSLATH:

The death of the citizen “Souayah Alaaúb good”, after he was
A hail of bullets by gunmen in a Toyota car
White, when he was in his car downtown Mslath
According to a source familiar with the city.
_____________________

ZLITEN:

The shrine of Sheikh Abdul Salam Asmar.
Do not be sad and do not waver, O Sheikh The vision became just around the corner or ears.
 
O Sheikh interpreted in Deir thing .. Lake complained of Arabs were formed.

_________________________

SIRTE:

ALL International flights are stopped to and from Sirte!

(New Airport was suppose to have new International service.)

..What happened?  News yet to be revealed….
We visited the Palace of Sirte Company for travel and tourism and assured us cancel international flights and have said there are attempts by Mr. Mohammed Aericheh member of the National Congress for the city of Sirte to provide a plane of Ghadames company to transport passengers and will tomorrow we will bring you news events if there is anything new ..
(Only happens in Sirte)

We visited the Palace of Sirte Company for travel and tourism and assured us cancel international flights and have said there are attempts by Mr. Mohammed Aericheh member of the National Congress for the city of Sirte to provide a plane of Ghadames company to transport passengers and will tomorrow we will bring you news events if there is anything new ..

Was canceled all international flights to and from the airport of Sirte International, which was scheduled to be the first trip for tomorrow are conflicting reports about the reasons, there are those who say there is a problem between the company Sfax Airways and Tunisair and there are those who say that the Libyan Arab Airlines fights Tunisian companies and there are those who say that the parties fights activate Sirte airport at the international level, but certainly Hua cancel all international flights and the people who have booked their tickets to Sfax change Almnfd air than any other city ..

(Only happens in Sirte)

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=518753321573013&set=a.157905070991175.32493.100003150495041&type=1&theater

International channel Libya Libya International Channel

Company “Aviation’s new” in the conduct of the Tunisian start a new air route from Sirte to the Tunisian capital Tunis and Sfax on the sixth of January twice weekly.

_____________________

CYRENAICA:

Said National Center for Meteorology today that each of the areas north of Libya and the heights of the Green Mountain and areas of the far east coast will see this day heavy rains, and the student center of the residents of these areas to take care of the flow of the valleys as a result of heavy rains accompanied by cells of thunderstorm clouds in addition to the beads fall cold, and the center said he probably snowfall especially on the heights of the Green Mountain.

—-

Libyan navy opens fire after tanker approaches mutinous port

Observer navigational Libyan ::::::::
Zaidane play and slaves Central Maltese oil tanker statement about the events of last Friday: –
Baku oil tanker registered in Malta and owned by Turkish Palmali Shipping Services
was on a trip to the transfer of 80 000 tons of crude oil from one of the Libyan ports to a European port in the eastern Mediterranean ….
– Last Friday, the port-line had received an order from the lessor to go to the port of Sidra ….

Did not warn us about the NOC to go to the port of Sidra, on Friday, January 3rd, 2014 we received a message from Libyan Oil Corporation will allow us to go to the port of Sidra of their employees Abdel Basset Zrta.
Our ship stopped before entering the territorial waters of Libya and sent to the Libyan authorities authorized access, and we were surprised later Libyan boats approaching and shoot us. We have sent a message to the Foundation for the oil that we Annue access, and continued to harass us Alzorac Libyan apparently to force us to go to the port of Misrata. We decided to go to Malta, and sent a complaint to the communication international bodies because we attack in international waters.(AND APPARENTLY ALLTHIS WAS DONE for the ‘Muslim’ BROTHERHOOD gangs of MISURATA–to sieze the oil!)

Ras Lanuf, near the Port of Sidra (Es Sider)

Maltese oil tanker owner denies the words of the Libyan government

Libya’s navy opened fire after a Maltese-flagged oil tanker approached to illegally load crude at a port that has been controlled for months by armed protesters demanding more autonomy from Tripoli, officials said on Monday.The use of force to prevent protesters at eastern ports from shipping oil to world markets independently is a major escalation in a blockade that has already slashed oil exports and revenues for the OPEC member state.Libyan officials said the tanker Baku had entered Libyan waters on Sunday in an attempt to approach the seized port of Es Sider. But the navy fired shots after the vessel refused to stop and instead turned to flee toward Malta.
“We asked them to change course toward Misrata, but then we had to open fire when they refused and started to pull away, zigzagging,” navy spokesman Emad Ayoub said in a televised news conference with other military officials.

—-

The state-run National Oil Corp. (NOC) said Libya had warned the owner of the vessel that approaching the port was illegal and said it would stop any tanker trying “to smuggle and steal Libyan oil illegally.”
[…]
The POLITICAL BUREAU OF CYRENAICA Leaders, based in Ajdabiya in the east, were not immediately available for comment to confirm they had sought to load a shipment of crude.

(NOT TRUE! READ THE FOLLOWING from YESTERDAY’s STATEMENT):

“We also emphasize that we are not anything to do with the tanker, which said the government but say that the carrier is contracting with the National Oil Corporation and we did not we contract with them.”

But the POLITICAL BUREAU of the eastern Province of Cyrenaica, who demand more Libyan people’s autonomy and a greater share of oil wealth, took control of three key ports six months ago, and have repeatedly petitioned to sell crude independently for all LIBYANS to share in equally. 

Ali Asbali
Statement is important for fighter Abed Rabbo Barasi Chairman of the Executive Office of the region of Cyrenaica, at at 11 will be transferred immediately with the channel tenderly, as I received about the sudden he promised in an earlier meeting.
Abed RABBO BARASI, President of POLICAL BUREAU OF CYRENAICA

NEWS UPDATE! 08 JANUARY 2014:

“Statement of the Executive Office of the province of Cyrenaica”

With respect to oil fields:

The misconduct of the central government in the sale and export of oil
We demanded several times to investigate that and our offer
They fully support it, but unfortunately there were not
Any response.
We emphasize on the following
Case of force majeure have been lifted in the oil ports in Cyrenaica
All ports are considered open oil for the benefit of the region three
Companies promise to respect all contracts
Welcome to all oil companies in the region of Cyrenaica and gas companies in the Services
Device will guard oil installations to protect any oil tanker ports
In collaboration with the Defence Force and the “Navy gently within the region” ..
We also emphasize that we are not anything to do with the tanker, which said the government but say that the carrier is contracting with the National Oil Corporation and we did not we contract with them.

08/01/2014

Agency urgently Libya / Ajdabiya – Agencies
Cyrenaica political office officially announced the start of oil exports through the port of Sidra,

and undertakes the protection of foreign oil tankers,

and Barasi calls for the armed forces and the rebels of Cyrenaica ready for any reaction from the puppet

central “government” in Tripoli.

Solidarity news agency ..

Government announces sale of oil gently in public ..

The Director of the Executive Office of the Poitical Bureau of Cyrenaica, Abed Rabbo Barasi, raised the case of force majeure for oil ports located in the Crescent Oil, (which is the) East of Libya.

President Barasi, in the middle of a press conference on Tuesday night, stated that the government will sell the oil gently in public through legitimate means – according to him – Every Libyan will know, of the quantities sold and the proceeds, adding that his Cyrenaica government was ready to face any military intervention by the interim puppet GNC “Viscey-government”*1 of NATO and the ‘Muslim’ Brotherhood.

The director of the Executive Office of the Political Bureau of Cyrenaica, says that his government will begin officially, as of Wednesday, the sale to oil importing companies, … pointing out that oil revenues will be divided between the three regions of the alleged Tripoli and Cyrenaica and Fezzan evenly.

He pointed out that Barasi’s defense forces ( the people’s Armed forces of Cyrenaica) will provide and protect Cyrenaica and oil tankers, since their entry into Libyan territorial waters and even those told to leave.

(*1: Referring to the NAZI false French Government of WW II)

Libya’s Cyrenaica hires Canada-based lobbyist to help sell oil

OTTAWA Tue 07 JANUARY 2014 (Reuters) –

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/07/libya-oil-canada-lobbyist-idUSL2N0KH19A20140107

Libya’s newly-declared eastern government of the Political Bureau of Cyrenaica has hired a Canadian-based lobbyist

to help it sell the region’s oil, according to documents filed in the United States.

The people’s “POLITICAL BUREAU of the PROVINCE OF CYRENAICA” seized three eastern ports last year to demand for the peopleofLibya, a greater share of Libya’s oil wealth. Tripoli vows to stop any efforts to sell oil independently and said the Libyan navy had prevented a tanker from loading crude at the port of  al-SIDRA/Es Sider on Sunday.

The pro-autonomy movement in Cyrenaica signed a deal on Dec. 5 with Dickens & Madson, a Montreal firm run by veteran lobbyist Ari Ben-Menashe whose previous clients include the government of Zimbabwe. Ben-Menashe has said he is an Iranian-born former member of Israeli military intelligence.

“We shall strive to provide you with economic aid by soliciting buyers for your oil when the need arises as well as tankers for the transport of oil,” the firm said in the document, which was filed with the U.S. Department of Justice under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.

The Political Bureau of Cyrenaica said on Tuesday it would ensure the safety of tankers using the PORT OF SIDRA/Es Sider.

Dickens & Madson also said it would try to gain political recognition from Moscow, strengthen the Cyrenaican movement’s military forces and boost the region’s private sector. The 293,384.19€ deal will run for one year.

Reuters was not immediately able to contact Ben-Menashe on Tuesday.

Dickens & Madson also informed the U.S. Department of Justice that it would lobby governments in the United States and other nations “with respect to stability, security and the governance of Libya and Cyrenaica.”

Among those it said it would be representing were the Cyrenaica Transitional Council, the Political Bureau of Cyrenaica and Ibrahim Jathran, leader of the autonomy movement.

In 2001 Ben-Menashe secretly videotaped a meeting he had in Canada with Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai. Ben-Menashe – whose firm was working as a consultant to the Zimbabwean government – told Reuters in early 2002 that the tape showed Tsvangirai discussing a plan to “eliminate” President Robert Mugabe.

Tsvangirai subsequently went on trial in Zimbabwe charged with treason but was acquitted. He later served as prime minister in a unity government with Mugabe’s ZANU-PF party.

(Reporting by David Ljunggren; Editing by Cynthia Osterman)

Atef Shelmani:
Executive Office of the province of Cyrenaica ..
With respect to oil fields:

The misconduct of the central government in the sale and export of oil
We demanded several times to investigate that and our offer
They fully support it, but unfortunately there were not
Any response. Emphasize on the following
Case of force majeure have been lifted in the oil ports in Cyrenaica
All ports are considered open oil for the benefit of the region three
Companies promise to respect all contracts
Welcome to all oil companies in the region of Cyrenaica and gas companies in the Services
Device will guard oil installations to protect any oil tanker ports
In collaboration with the Defence Force and the Navy gently within the region ..
We also emphasize that we are not anything to do with the tanker, which said the government but
Say that the carrier is contracting with the National Oil Corporation and we did not we contract
With it.

BREGA, RAS LANAUF, AJDABIYA:

After receiving promises by the National Congress, that salaries
Employees of a guard oil installations acted this week
Ajdabiya has been opened by – Sirte, which was shut down at a time
By former employees of the Guard facilities for not receiving their salaries
For a long time of more than 3 months.
 

PORT BREGA

AJDABIYA:

Now this image of the city of Ajdabiya yesterday after a night of lightning and thunder and hail the descent of God Mchae:
(Qusay cabled)

CASABLANCA:

Salafist movement in the city of Casablanca publish leaflets inciting the
killing of Al-Qaeda-CIA extremists, because that is a great reward.Today one predecessor been killed in Benghazi appear to be interrelated themes!!
Gateway Libya

# Idris confirms that the process of forgery and reached the 4576 booklet family forger and the number of defendants has reached the 40 accused
Which was held in the city of Casablanca in a press conference last week to Reconnaissance Battalion Alaolh third secret and the presence of co-ordinating civil society institutions on the white background of the issue of fraud.

Showing where Khalaha head Investigation Unit Idris Bualtiah issue of the so-called issue of civil fraud record CASABLANCA (white).

He said the number of prevented fraud reached the 4576 booklet family forged and the number of defendants and the prayers of 40 defendants and the piece after he was arrested the main suspect in the city of Tobruk, which admitted the rest of the group and also stressed that this process has elongated filaments and select most of the areas that Morch out process forgery, at Casablanca (white) _ # _ Benghazi, Ajdabiya and other areas of Cyrenaica, Libya…. But also in SOUTH LIBYA (FEZZAN) at Sabha and Kufra regions ..

It is worth mentioning that he had been kidnapped Idris Bualtiah on the background of this case and he is and his family to threats successive But he did not back down as the issue of public opinion and belonging to the state security to come after the word Mohammed Rizk, who stressed repeatedly

and repeatedly size of rampant corruption, the spectrum due to the smuggling operations carried out through ports Wild has appealed Borozk stakeholders to provide necessary means necessary to avoid the risk of epidemics and food corrupt and illegal immigration to conclude conference with a speech coordinating civil society institutions and Casablanca (white), which did not hide their fears that such operations may be affected by the impact directly in the composition of demography for Libya and the piece to bring the weight of the views of internal and external longstanding in Libya being to come to an important stage a constitutional entitlement.

Please deployment on a wider scale ….

(Qusay cabled)

from 17 DEC. 2013’s heavy Rins:
CASABLANCA is flooded 17 DEC 2013

from 2011:

BENGHAZI:

Agency Mermaid news Mermaid News Agency:
Suspension of the “the Egyptian” consulate within the city of Benghazi, until further notice.

Wednesday 01/08/2014 AD
Agency reporter said in Benghazi:

suspended consular “Egyptian” business in the city of Benghazi, until further notice, according to the announcement, which commented on the consulate building after exposure to an armed attack two days ago, did not result in casualties. Noted that the consulate “is the Egyptian Diplomacy is the only international force in the city of Benghazi, after the departure of all diplomatic missions as a result of the deterioration of the security situation in the city and the lack of security around diplomatic missions.

Edit: Mohammed Shafi.

Exposed the military, “Mustafa Alcadekke” of an assassination attempt by
A little in front of the headquarters of the military police, and mentions that “Alcadekke” was
Resuscitate him just before the Hawari Hospital and is one of the employees
Benghazi Naval Base, where he was to shoot it when
It was a car with fellow military area Buhedama, wounded on
Impact in the leg and is now receiving treatment:

Hani Al Oraibi – Media General Hawari hospital assures me about the arrival of

Mr Mustafa Alcadekke multiplied by releasing it in the leg after a process of trying to assassinate area Buhedama Street

military police and is now operating room at the hospital, and  Mr. Hani said:

Mustafa is one of the military Bsearbh .. …….

T. G “Mustafa Abdul Rahim Alcadekke”‘s base Benghazi
Navy entered the hospital following an injury in the leg as a result
Out bullets from his own gun after he was driving
His car near the military police came and Buhedama
So after it was drawn and the gun is locked and came
In order to put him out of his part Alredadat to stabilize the legs.

This news is not true in an assassination attempt as stated in
Some pages from the heart of the event now.

(Atef Shelmani)

Ashraf Alnami relays  this letter:
Hello Khouna Mutassim:I asked God, please  publish this news:Today Itarich 01/07/2014 the car type Elantra inky color trying to kidnap the children of my brother, where people who turned from the examination of school Razek senile in the way of the house Mara area parks through the street separating the confectioner Beeand replace tires in front of the School Street mosque} {car started to proceed against them and by two people as the children of my brotherMonday noticed the car behind them {the sons of my brother theirs horror and Daru turns on a street full, which caused them} to stop my older nephew and told him prefer to cause us to launch ĘČí,said to him, Come ride Nbek you, said to him, will not ride launched ĘČí me He then behind the second to bring the pistol and shot toward the son of my younger brother, then the driver said to him I tell Maak style ride Khirlk said his nephew, the largest found to need say here, then the driver began Bolfad ugly insult Majesty and he opened the door of his car to come down and I Thank Godand my nephew the maintenance of the door and did not let him come down from the car so the driver extended his hand under his chair to come out something so the son of my elder brother of trying to grab and strike hampered for what he wants to get it out in time was the son of my younger brother of the second weapon point where when the driver began Baltlvd USB Jalal nephew Little by multiplying the facilities.The driver fell on a sample was taken and the gun and pointed it at the driver’s facilities and began to scream his knees {state} hysteria.Then she started the car to escape.Adina reached in the center Aalfoahat Qallona Come reel and helmets after the record number and they said to them Onamamo …..
(Mutassim Faitouri)

AHUMAIDH:

Ahumaidh bombing rocked the area in the early morning hours, as a result
Targeting a stall selling tobacco portfolio in the region “trunk” without
incurring casualties, and resulted in material damage only.
Mr Key Nuri Alahbuna found dead with two bullets and lying next to a police station and the city is a cleaner.
Found the body of “key Nuri Alahbuna,” morning
Today dumped near the center of the city police, after killing
Two bullets, and his body was moved Galaa Hospital, and
The “Alahbuna” factor Libyan company for cleanliness and is
A civilian and not military, and in the thirties.

al-SABRI:

Targeting Wahda Bank branch Sabri, shortly before now
And witnesses confirmed that the unidentified aboard a Chinese car
White, threw an explosive device, resulting in a
Shattering the glass, and blast damage only
Facade of the bank, did not result in casualties.

MILKFISH:

Galaa Hospital for surgery and accidents / Benghazi
The arrival of the body of Salafi Sheikh (Abdul Latif happy Jeroshi) to the hospital,

where he was assassinated in his shop area milkfish shot in the head ..

I am God, and to Him we return …

Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaagel Benghazi ::: :::
The assassination of Mr. Abdul Latif Hassan Kabylie region of milkfish inside his shop ((materials Gdaúah))
and mentions that it is the Salafi brothers, and now, in front of a large gathering Galaa Hospital Salafis …………..
Atef Shelmani  reporting:
Tfaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaasil
The assassination of one of the last young Salafi brothers..
The assassination of the young man, “Abdullatif Kabylie” follows the young man straight
Salafi friendly approach to replace “Mobile Phones” Balslmana
Went to evening prayers and went back to the shop and after a quarter of an hour
Income and mother’s attic finds his head on the ground and in the three
Bullets caused the death of this young man.
For your information when searched the shop and found the money and phones ..
The purpose is not theft.
Page Street gardens Benghazi denies this news
(URGENT: a car bomb outside the home of Prime Security Directorate Benghazi area parks
without causing any damage from the blast mankind)
And there is no bombing of Khobar in parks and Praise God.
—-

SOUSSE, TOBRUK, TORKE, DERNA & THE TUBER:

TOBRUK:

HMS Bangor blasts mines in Libyan mission

Navy special forces managed to Tobruk naval base last night, from the arrest of a ship carrying Lebanese nationality and flying the flag of the State of Togo East area (Marina you). According to the spokesman of the Libyan navy Colonel (Job denominator) and agency (and) that the ship bearing the name of the Lebanese “Axandera” and has a total staff of 10 people, 5, 4 Syrians and Moroccans, an Indian citizen, and that he had been escorted to the naval base of Tobruk. The spokesman said that investigations were continuing with the ship’s crew about the reasons for entry and presence Libyan territorial waters.

__________________________

SOUTH LIBYA (FEZZAN)

SABHA:

discovered that it is a band from MISURATA causing the kidnappings and troubles now in SABHA  !:

Free newspaper Sabha
ĂÚáćăĺ uncertain about the existence of a group of Misurata  are located in the city of Sabha, and the kidnapping and arrest some wanted to have and we are still waiting for confirmation of the news and know their whereabouts.
And who has any information informs us.
Peace be upon you.
(Reporter Sabha)
Channel capital Tripoli
Attempted kidnapping, “Ismail Aguary” bank manager deserts Sabha.

__________________________

Mu asking why

So, Who Did Discover America?

Abu Raihan al-Biruni, an Islamic scholar from Central Asia, may have discovered the New World

centuries before Columbus – without leaving his study – as S. Frederick Starr explains.

Sebastian Munster's map, published in 1540, the first to show America as a continent. AKG Images

Sebastian Munster’s map, published in 1540, the first to show America as a continent. AKG Images

First comes Zuan Chabotto (c.1450-99), the Venetian navigator and explorer. His claim turns on the fact that Columbus did not reach the American mainland until 1498, while he touched the North American shore a full year earlier. That he had set sail from England caused him to be remembered in the Anglophone world as John Cabot and shifted bragging rights from Venice to the ‘Sceptred Isle’. Then it turned out that, while Cabot found investors in Bristol and received a patent from Henry VII, his principal financial backer was an Italian banking house in London. The laurels shifted back to Italy.

Discoveries and doubts

In 1966 an English scholar, Alwyn Ruddock, discovered a letter of 1498 written to Columbus by an English merchant named John Day. In it, Day asserted that it was ‘considered certain’ that the North American mainland, which Cabot had visited the previous year, had been ‘found and discovered in the past’ by seamen from the port of Bristol (which happened to be Ruddock’s home town). Ruddock unearthed more papers suggesting that these pioneering Englishmen had reached America as early as 1470. Unfortunately Ruddock ordered all of these papers to be destroyed at her death in 2005. Just as it seemed that the prize was about to head north again, fresh doubts set in.

Amid this ping-pong match, Francesco Guidi-Bruscoli, the Italian historian who had discovered information on Cabot’s Italian backers, came across a yellowed parchment map with an intriguing notation suggesting that Cabot may have been dispatched to confirm a discovery made many years earlier. Written in Italian, it states that ‘Giovanni Chabotte’ (Cabot) from Venice had been commissioned to sail to the ‘new land’. That the reference to new land was preceded in Italian by the definite article, il, rather than the indefinite un suggested to Guidi-Bruscoli that Cabot’s sponsors already knew of the Americas, thanks to reports by an earlier explorer. Cabot was simply verifying what was already known.

Meanwhile scholars from Scandinavia have examined the Norse sagas for evidence that their forebears had sailed to North American shores before the English and Italians. The story of Vikings plowing the waves in their narrow-hulled boats to explore and settle Greenland is by now well known and confirmed by archaeological finds along Greenland’s south-western coast. At the beginning of the 20th century Professor Gustav Storm of the University of Christiania in Oslo produced evidence that Norsemen had made several trips to within sight of the Canadian coast, identifying and naming Markland (southern Labrador), Helluland (Baffin Island) and Vinland, which is thought to be Nova Scotia.

Norse sagas

Among these adventurers Leif Ericson (970-1020), the son of Eric the Red (c.950-1003), who had discovered Greenland, entered the history books for his sighting of Vinland in about 1000. True, one saga from 1387 states that a certain Bjarni, Son of Herjulf, had beaten Leif to Vinland, having been blown off course and sighted land there as early as 985-6. But no further support for the Bjarni claim has turned up.

Just what is meant, then, by this Norse ‘discovery’ of North America? Leif Ericson was a Christian missionary who had been sent to Greenland by King Olaf I of Norway (r.995-1000) with orders to bring the faith to settlements there. On the return voyage his boat was blown so far south that he was brought within view of Nova Scotia. The authors of the Norse sagas, amazed that he survived this adventure, dubbed him ‘Leif the Lucky’.

Except for Ericson, most of the other Norsemen who made contact with North America were traders by profession. Had their commercial interests fared better, they might have given the continent a second look, but they didn’t. Their one serious venture onto North American territory resulted in a fight with native Americans, after which they quickly fled to their boats. The southernmost confirmed evidence of Vikings in the New World was discovered in 1960 at L’Anse aux Meadows, on the northern tip of Newfoundland.

From the sod houses and primitive artefacts that archaeologists excavated at L’Anse aux Meadows and in Greenland these Norse traders emerge as hardy adventurers. As to their ‘explorations’, they were carried out in a thoroughly ad hoc way, usually the result of accident or unfavourable winds. At their most deliberate the Vikings strove each time to sail a little further down a coastline than their immediate predecessor. Either way, when they returned to Greenland, Iceland or Norway they told their tales to wide-eyed listeners huddled around log fires. There is no evidence that any of the Viking leaders who headed towards North America were literate.

It took another three generations before Adam of Bremen (c.1050-1081/5) in northern Germany, wrote the Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, a chronicle which included the stories he had heard concerning the adventures of Leif the Lucky. Adam and other chroniclers and authors of the sagas offered their reports in a stolid and matter-of-fact way, with no indication that they had any idea of the implications of these remarkable travels.

Abu Raihan Al Biruni

At around the same time that the Vikings were venturing south and westward from their bases in Greenland, a very different process of discovery was taking place in landlocked territories many months’ journey from the nearest open salt water. Beginning more than 3,000 years ago, traders from the great urban centres of what is now Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan had sent goods across Eurasia, from Europe to India and China. They moved their cargo in long camel caravans, which carried the equivalent of a dozen or more modern freight containers. Gold and silver coins minted in their cities were honoured as currency as far afield as Sri Lanka and England. Vikings, among others, collected hordes of these beautifully crafted coins because they knew they would be accepted widely. Once back home the Central Asian traders not only told their tales around neatly built hearths in solid multi-storey houses but wrote down detailed information on the geography and climates of the lands they had visited. Local scholars collected and analysed these reports.

A curious mind

The greatest of these scholars was Abu Raihan al-Biruni. Born in 973 near the Aral Sea in what is now Uzbekistan, while still a youth Biruni mastered mathematics, astronomy, mineralogy, geography, cartography, geometry and trigonometry. He spoke Persian, Arabic and Khwarazmian, the language of the Sunni dynasty that ruled Greater Iran between the 12th and 13th centuries. Later on he also studied Sanskrit.

While still a young man Biruni had calculated the latitude and longitude of his home town and had begun to collect similar co-ordinates for other places. Using ancient Greek sources he compiled data on hundreds of locales in the Mediterranean world and then began adding calculations on other locations from all points of the compass. From ancient writers like Claudius Ptolemy (c.150 BC), from more recent sources and from his own field observations he knew that the earth is round. By the time he was 30 Biruni was employing the most advanced systems of the day to calculate its precise circumference. In a pioneering effort not matched until the Renaissance he constructed a globe 16ft high showing the Earth’s terrestrial features.

Biruni followed in the footsteps of several other scientists from Central Asia. Among them was Ahmad al-Farghani, from what is now Uzbekistan, who in the ninth century had calculated the width of one degree of longitude at the equator, from which he deduced the earth’s circumference. His calculation, though less precise than Biruni’s, marked a significant improvement on those made by the ancient Greeks and assured a wide readership for his book on the subject, A Compendium of the Science of the Stars (c.833). Five centuries later Columbus came across a Latin translation of Farghani’s treatise. Besides welcoming confirmation that the Earth is round, Columbus used Farghani’s data to argue before sceptical potential sponsors that it was small enough for him potentially to circumnavigate. However, Columbus wrongly assumed that Farghani had presented his measurements in Roman miles rather than Arab miles. This caused him to understate the actual circumference of the earth by 25 per cent. His misreading caused (or, if it was deliberate, enabled) Columbus to place Cipango, or Japan, near the Virgin Islands. This convenient error proved crucial in Columbus obtaining funding for what he estimated would be a relatively short voyage to China.

Biruni had also delved into mineralogy, specifically the relative density and weight of minerals of all types and how the separate minerals interact in nature. In the process of this research he discovered the concept of specific gravity.

Just how Biruni acquired his passion for precise measurement is a mystery. It certainly owed something to his education, which included study of the classical Greek scientist Pythagoras, who had proclaimed that ‘things are numbers’. Biruni’s constant urge to quantify whatever he observed, combined with his enquiring mind, was to plunge him down a path that led to epochal insights, which in most respects put Columbus, Cabot and the Vikings in the shade.

By 1017 Biruni had become an honoured scientist at Gurganch, the intellectual capital of his home region of Khwarazm. But in that year a fierce and religiously fanatical Muslim ruler from Ghazni in Afghanistan, crushed Khwarazm and destroyed its capital.

Mahmud of Ghazni

Mahmud was born on Thursday, 10th of Muharram, 361 AH/ 02November 971 AD (Old Style) in the town of Ghazna in Medieval Khorasan (in what is now south-eastern Afghanistan). His father, Abu Mansur Sabuktigin, was a Turkic slave-soldier of the Samanid Emirs of Bukhara. His mother was the daughter of a Persian aristocrat from Zabulistan.

Military campaigns

Sultan Mahmud and his forces attacking the fortress of Zaranj

In 994, Mahmud joined his father Sebuktigin in the capture of Khorasan from the rebel Fa’iq in aid of the Samanid EmirNuh II. During this period the Samanid state became highly unstable, with shifting internal political tides as various factions vied for control, the chief among them being Abu’l-Qasim Simjuri, Fa’iq, Abu Ali, the General Bekhtuzin as well as the neighbouring Buyids and Qarakhanids. Mahmud took over his father’s kingdom in 998 after defeating and capturing Ismail at the Battle of Ghazni. He then set out west from Ghazni to take the Kandahar region followed by Bost (Lashkar Gah), where he turned it into a militarized city.

In 1001, Mahmud initiated the first of numerous invasion of northern India. On 28 November, his army fought and defeated the army of RajaJayapala of the Kabul Shahi dynasty at Peshawar. In 1002, Mahmud invaded Sistan, dethroned Khalaf I, last of the Saffarid amirs, and ended the Saffarid dynasty. From there he decided to focus on Hindustan to the southeast, particularly the highly fertile lands of the Punjab region since south eastern Khorasan (his native province) was mostly mountains, dry deserts and the fertile lands there had been poorly harvested and let to waste during the reign of the previous rulers.It should be noted that Punjab was well known for its mangoesorangesbananas and other tropical fruits that Khorasan lacked and instead was famous for pomegranates and watermelons. It suggests that this has been the main reason for the Ghaznavids invading India because the fruit as well as ricesugarwheat, and other products exported to the Middle East and Central Asia generated more income than anything else for the rulers.

Mahmud’s first campaign to the south was against the Ismaili Fatimid Kingdom at Multan in a bid to carry political favor and recognition with the Abbassid Caliphate; he also engaged with the Fatimids elsewhere. At this point, Jayapala attempted to gain revenge for an earlier military defeat at the hands of Mahmud’s father, who had controlled Ghazni in the late 980s and had cost Jayapala extensive territory. His son Anandapala succeeded him and continued the struggle to avenge his father’s suicide. He assembled a powerful confederacy which faced defeat as his elephant turned back from the battle in a crucial moment, turning the tide into Mahmud’s favor once more at Lahore in 1008 bringing Mahmud into control of the Hindu Shahi dominions of Udbandpura.

Ghaznavid campaigns in South Asia

Following the defeat of the Rajput Confederacy, after deciding to retaliate for their combined resistance, Mahmud then set out on regular expeditions against them, leaving the conquered kingdoms in the hands of Hindu vassals annexing only thePunjab region. He also vowed to raid India every year.

The Indian kingdoms of NagarkotThanesarKannaujGwalior, and Ujjain were all conquered and left in the hands of Hindu, Jain and Buddhist Kings as vassal states and he was pragmatic enough not to shirk making alliances and enlisting local peoples into his armies at all ranks.

Destroying them would destroy the will power of the Hindus attacking the Empire since Mahmud never kept a permanent presence in the subcontinent; NagarkotThanesarMathuraKannaujKalinjar and Somnath were all thus raided. Mahmud’s armies stripped the temples of their wealth and then destroyed them at, MaheshwarJwalamukhi, Narunkot and Dwarka. During the period of Mahmud invasion, the Sindhi Swarankar Community and other Hindus who escaped conversion fled from Sindh to escape sectarian violence.

Patron of the arts and poetry

Mahmud brought whole libraries from Rayy and Isfahan to Ghazni. He even demanded that the Khwarizmshah court send its men of learning to Ghazni.

The notable poet Ferdowsi, after laboring 27 years, went to Ghazni and presented the Shahnameh to Mahmud. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by Mahmud in Ferdowsi and his life’s work. According to historians, Mahmud had promised Ferdowsi a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh (60,000 dinars), but later retracted and presented him with dirhams (20,000 dirhams), the equivalent at that time of only 200 dinars.

Political challenges and his death

Tomb of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1848.

The last four years of Mahmud’s life were spent contending with the influx of Oghuz Turkic tribes from Central Asia, the Buyid Dynasty and rebellions by Seljuqs. Initially the Seljuks were repulsed by Mahmud and retired to Khwarezm but Togrül and Çagrı led them to capture Merv and Nishapur (1028–1029). Later they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh and even sacked Ghazni in 1037. In 1040 at the Battle of Dandanaqan, they decisively defeated Mahmud’s son, Mas’ud I resulting in Mas’ud abandoning most of his western territories to the Seljuks.

Sultan Mahmud died on 30 April 1030. His mausoleum is located in Ghazni, Afghanistan.

Mahmud of Ghazni, as he was known, like many rulers in the region, tried to surround himself with poets and learned scholars. He ordered Biruni to come to Ghazni and bring the results of his research with him.

Biruni, with no way out, not only complied but seized upon the move as an opportunity to learn more about India, which Mahmud had conquered over the previous decade. But Mahmud was as difficult as he was ruthless and Biruni quickly realised that he had to distance himself from his court. He removed to Lahore, now in Pakistan, where he penned the world’s first book on comparative religion, focusing on Hinduism and Islam. Gathering his notes and no equipment other than a simple astrolabe, he then withdrew to a heavily fortified hilltop castle at Nandana, not far from what is now Islamabad.

There Biruni returned to the old problem of measuring the earth’s circumference. To this end he devised a new technique, which involved careful observation, spherical trigonometry and the application of the law of sines. Besides being far simpler than using two distant points on flat land, this method produced a measure of the earth’s circumference that was a mere 10.44 miles less than the definitive modern measurement.

After Mahmud’s death in 1030, Biruni hauled his field notes and papers back to Ghazni in Afghanistan, where Mahmud’s son, Masud I (r.1031-40), welcomed him and helped him to settle into a quiet life of research and writing. Biruni wrote up his lifetime’s research on specific gravity and then turned to writing a vast tome, known as the Codex Masudicus, in which he summarised everything known at the time about astronomy and allied disciplines.

It was in the Codex Masudicus that Biruni considered the possibility that the sun is stationary and that the earth revolves around it. He stopped short of fully embracing a heliocentric view, noting instead that the notion of a heliocentric universe is no less logical than its alternative and called on mathematicians and astronomers either to refute it or accept it. It is no wonder that historians of science judge the Codex Masudicus to be the greatest work on astronomy from the period between late antiquity and the modern era. In his codex Biruni also hypothesised about the existence of North and South America.

Biruni began by presenting the research on the earth’s circumference that he had carried out at Nandana. He then set about fixing all known geographical locations onto his new, more accurate map of the globe. His list of longitudes and latitudes had grown substantially since his earliest collection and now included more than 70 sites in India alone, as well as hundreds of other locations stretching across the Eurasian land mass.

When Biruni transposed these data onto his map of the earth he noticed at once that the entire breadth of Eurasia, from the westernmost tip of Africa to the easternmost shore of China, spanned only about two fifths of the globe. This left three fifths of the Earth’s surface unaccounted for.

A world ocean

The most obvious way to explain this gap of 15,000 miles was to invoke the explanation that all geographers from antiquity down to Biruni’s day had accepted: that the Eurasian land mass was surrounded by a ‘World Ocean’. But was three fifths of the Earth’s circumference really nothing but water? Biruni considered this possibility but rejected it on the grounds of both observation and logic. From his study of specific gravity he knew that most solid minerals were heavier than water. Would so watery a world not give rise to serious imbalances to which the planet would have had to adjust over time? And why, he asked, would the forces that had given rise to land on two fifths of the earth’s belt not also have had an effect on the other three fifths as well? Biruni concluded that somewhere in the vast expanses of ocean between Europe and Asia there must be one or more unknown land masses or continents.

Were these unknown continents empty wildernesses or ones inhabited by human beings? To address this question Biruni turned to his data on longitudes. He noted that human beings inhabit a broad north-south band stretching from Russia to southern India and the heart of Africa. If the unknown continent or continents were uninhabited, he reasoned, they would have to lie either north or south of this band.

To pursue this hypothesis Biruni went beyond his field observations and employed Aristotelian logic, a reasoning process built from propositions. Noting that the Eurasian land mass stretched roughly around the Earth’s belt, he hypothesised that it must have been the result of powerful processes that would surely have obtained elsewhere. Known evidence of the Earth gave him no grounds for believing that the unknown continents would be squashed into the northernmost and southernmost latitudes. He concluded that the unknown land masses between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans would have to be inhabitable as, in fact, they were.

Biruni reached these momentous conclusions about the existence of the New World by 1037, basing them on research he had conducted over the preceding three decades.

Did Biruni discover America in the first third of the 11th century? In one sense, definitely not. He never laid eyes on the New World or the continents about which he wrote. By contrast the Norsemen had actually touched land in North America shortly before ad 1000; briefly, to be sure, and without really understanding what they had found. Leif Ericson was so uninterested in the forested shore of North America that he did not bother to return later, nor did any of those who heard oral reports of Ericson’s travels or read about them in later Norse documents. Still, if ‘discovery’ includes the unreflective processes of Norse seafaring, then the prize must go to the Vikings.

Yet Biruni is at least as deserving of the title of North America’s discoverer as any Norseman. Moreover, the intellectual process by which he reached his conclusions is no less stunning than the conclusions themselves. His tools were not the hit-or-miss methods of Venetian seamen or Norse sailors but an adroit combination of carefully controlled observation, meticulously assembled quantitative data and rigorous logic. Only after a further half-millennium did anyone else apply such rigorous analysis to global exploration.

Having assembled all known knowledge of the subject, studying the wisdom of ancient Greeks and Indians as well as medieval Arabs and fellow Central Asians, Biruni devised completely new methods and technologies to generate his voluminous and precise data and processed it with the latest tools of mathematics, trigonometry and spherical geometry as well as the austere methods of Aristotelian logic. He was careful to present his conclusions in the form of hypotheses, on the understanding that other researchers would want to test and refine his findings. This did not happen for another five centuries. In the end European explorers confirmed his hypotheses and vindicated his bold proposals.

Breaking free

This son of Central Asia was arguably the greatest explorer between the ancient world and the great age of European exploration. Two features of Biruni’s work warrant this conclusion. First, he achieved what he did through the systematic and rigorous application of reason and logic, unconstrained by religious or secular dogmas, folklore or anecdotes. He was a Muslim, but broke free of the culture-bound assumptions of Islam in a way that scientists in the Christian West struggled for several more centuries to achieve. He carried out his breathtaking intellectual explorations while living far from the sea in a landlocked region and without leaving his study except to carry out scientific measurements. While he was absolutely confident in his conclusions, his written presentation of them indicated the precise paths by which someone seeking to disprove him might proceed.

Who today can better the credo that this Central Asian polymath penned a thousand years ago?

… in an absolute sense, science is good in itself, apart from its [content of] knowledge; its lure is everlasting and unbroken … [The servant of science] should praise the assiduous [ones] whenever their efforts [arises from] delight [in science itself] rather than from [the hope of achieving] victory in argument.

Even today, Biruni’s modus operandi strikes one as astonishingly modern, a voice of calm and dispassionate scientific enquiry sounding forth from the depths of the irrational and superstitious medieval world.

Biruni accomplished all this while living and working in a region which many still regard as backward, a region immersed in superstition, fanaticism and violence. His birthplace in western Uzbekistan is close to the Aral Sea, where from the 1950s the Soviet Union created one of the most fearful ecological disasters of modern times. His achievements took place in a bleak zone on the northern border of Turkmenistan, far from the enormous gas fields that are today transforming that country into a Central Asian Kuwait. His research at Nandana, in what is now the West Punjab territory of Pakistan, put him within an hour of Jammu and Kashmir, the future scenes of a half century of armed struggle between Pakistan and India. As to Ghazni in Afghanistan, where he penned his renowned Codex Masudicus, simply to reach this town today is a dangerous task, requiring armoured vehicles and armed guards to traverse the heavily mined road from Kabul or Kandahar.

But one can do so nonetheless and can, amid the desolate remains of ancient Ghazni, ferret out the actual tomb of Biruni. Here in the very heart of Afghanistan lie the remains of the most modern explorer of the Middle Ages, a man who was open to the entire world and to all the knowledge it contains.

If and when Afghanistan gains a stable government and begins to develop, travellers and tourists will visit Ghazni, the scene of Biruni’s great work as a global explorer, and pay their respects at the tomb of one whose achievements match those of Columbus.

S. Frederick Starr is research professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University and a founding chairman of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute.

If you enjoyed this article, you might like these:

_______________________

IRAQ & SYRIA:

Jay goodness .. Antzero Paso

Astbarta official to CNN: greater financial support for the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Daash)

comes from Libya with Zaidane‘s blessings.. Libyan money funded those groups in Iraq and Syria ..

(Gateway Libya)

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