Reuters / Esam Omran Al-Fetori
Illegal migrants who attempted to sail to Europe, sit in a boat carrying them back to Libya, after their boat was intercepted at sea by the Libyan coast guard, at Khoms, Libya 06 May 2015. (Reuters/Aymen Elsahli)
25 May 2015 14:38. Reuters / Esam Omran al-Fetori.
West is still interested in pure crooks, psychopaths and puppets to lead Libya
Libya is now a basket case of problems after suffering interference by western powers that are not interested in promoting peace, but rather managing the chaos, Gearoid O Colmain, an independent political analyst, told RT.
The EU has planned a naval operation in the Mediterranean to target those smuggling refugees from Libya to the EU. Such an operation would include reconnaissance runs and the destruction of human trafficking bases in Libya itself. It could even mean putting European boots on the ground.
RT: The EU wants to capture smugglers and destroy their boats off the Libyan coast. Is Europe trying to bring peace and stability to Libya? Or simply stop an inflow of illegal migrants?
Gearoid O Colmain: If you go to the streets of Paris, you can see a picture of one of the leaders of the so-called Libyan revolution in 2011. He has beenportrayed and displaced on kiosks all over Paris. His name is Abdelhakim Belhadj and he is an al-Qaeda operative, he is known from official sources to be an al-Qaeda operative. In fact, he was accused by a former PM of Spain, José María Aznar, of being behind the bombing of Madrid in 2004. Abdelhakim Belhadj is now being presented as a possible future leader of Libya and being promoted all over Paris. These are the kind of people Western governments are interested in – pure crooks, psychopaths and puppets.
Here is a link just to show how MI6 asset is a victim: MI6 and multiple NGOs are working at positioning Belhadj as victim. Among them ” Reprieve ”http://www.reprieve.org.uk/case-study/abdul-hakim-belhaj/
Funded (not cited on their website but) as far as I know, Open Society Foundations, Ford foundation, and others. In the article it says that he was tortured in Libya which is not true a known fact he betrayed all his comrades which were apprehended in the process he was put on house arrest together with his pregnant wife and wearing a bracelet anklet on both for a year, after that both of them were free all charges dropped… once he swore allegiance to the Jamahirya government… What the article fails to mention that he is an MI6
asset. I will also put you the link of the French interview of Belhaj who is pretending to be a politician while all Libyans suffer under his rule with executions, rapes, kidnapping, torture. Lets not forget that Abdulhakim Belhaj has sworn allegiance to ISIS/Daesh which is even worse than Al Qaeda..
They are not interested in leaders and they are not certainly interested in having a responsible government in Libya. Libya had a responsible government, a civil society. Libya was one of the most progressive countries in Africa. In fact, it was the richest country in Africa and it was making great progress in unifying the continent. And it was attacked in 2011 by a coalition of Islamist groups backed by NATO. They bombed the entire infrastructure, they bombed schools, hospitals and they murdered up to 100,000 people. Europe is not interested in peace in Libya. They are interested in military occupation. They are interested in preventing the development of the entire global south and that what the bombing of Libya was about. I don’t think this soi-disant government in Tripoli has any clue how to resolve this problem.
These are people who probably believe in everything they were told by their masters in Brussels, Paris, London and Washington and they are now realizing that Libya has been completely destroyed. It is no longer a nation state. It’s no longer a country that has any kind of a future. This problem will grow, you will see mass influx of immigrants and of course there will be more terrorist attacks. But this war on terror is a fraud, a fake and people need to realize that. They are really mocking the intelligence people by their actions.So I don’t think that Europe will be interested in anything stable in Libya.What they want is to simply manage the chaos.
I should also point out that an influx of desperate immigrants into Europe in a time of austerity is actually an advantage to Western corporations because these people will work for nothing. They are very desperate and they will drive down wages and wages are already coming down. So they will put pressure on the work force in Europe. And in that sense they are not too bothered by it. But what it will do of course it will lead to more repression because once we see more terrorist attacks like the one we saw in Paris in January that will lead then to more police repression, more militarization of European societies. But the big problem here is that the governments of the EU and the US are clinically insane, their actions are absolutely the contrary of reason. And that is the big problem. We do not have responsible government in Europe. We in Europe and in the US live under a dictatorship and that is the deep cause of the crisis we are seeing now in Libya.
RT: How is this mission different from previous naval operations there? Is Europe trying to control and militarize the Mediterranean?
GC: The term ‘Mare nostrum’ which was the term used by fascist Italy during the 1930s when they conquered Libya – that was the first aerial bombardment in history. The term ‘Mare nostrum’ is being used again, now by the EU. In other words, “the Mediterranean belongs to us.” The big problem with Gaddafi of course is that he didn’t agree with that. Libya was also a country that had its own interests; Africa is other side of the Mediterranean after all.Europe does want to militarize the Mediterranean; it does want to control all the coast of the Mediterranean. There will be a militarization of the other side of “Mare nostrum,” which is the Italian fascist term for the Mediterranean which was used officially. So I think there will be a militarization of the North African coast, particularly Libya. Algeria has not been conquered or attacked, but Algeria is on the list. That will come. The destabilization of Algeria has already begun and that will continue. It all depends on whether or not other countries will survive. If Syria falls you will have an absolute chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean, which will spread right up into Europe. We know Islamic State – an emanation [from] US imperialism – has now made significant conquests in Syria and they have also been training in Libya.
I don’t see any way out for the Libyan government unless it realizes that if they don’t seek other forces, other global powers and perhaps make contacts with them, there is no way they are ever going to get out of this chaos. In other words, they will be well-advised perhaps to go to Beijing and Moscow and discuss possibilities of stabilization with countries that are actually fighting a war on terrorism. Let’s not forget there the world is now split up between two forces: the countries who are sponsoring, financing and promoting terrorism, the US and the EU, and the countries who are fighting terrorism – Russia, China and Iran. The Libyan government will have to make this decision if they want actually to have peace and some kind of viable economy in the future. They are going to have to make a decision about who their patrons are going to be because if they continue to take orders from the EU and the US they are going to have military occupation and chaos for very long time indeed.
EU naval mission against African migrants combines ‘deep inhumanity & stupidity’
EU foreign ministers have agreed to a naval operation in the Mediterranean Sea to contain an influx of immigrants from Africa, a move Chris Nineham,vice-chair of the Stop the War Coalition, said will only increase bitterness against the West.
RT: Do you think targeting smugglers will be effective in stemming the flow of immigrants?
Chris Nineham: I don’t think it will be effective. I think it’s a policy that combines deep inhumanity with real stupidity. One reason – probably the main reason – that has created this migrant crisis in the first place is the catastrophe that was unleashed on Libya particularly back in 2011 by the bombing campaign by the West, which devastated the country socially and physically, as well as killing tens of thousands of people. The idea that what is needed in these circumstances, faced with this appalling humanitarian crisis,is more bombs and more military intervention leaves me virtually speechless,frankly. It’s the last thing that we need.
RT: How would you gather intelligence? Isn’t there a chance the EU’s forces could destroy vessels with innocent people onboard?
CN: Absolutely. Any so-called war on the traffickers will in practice end up being a war on the migrants themselves because presumably they are going to be attacking the boats and there are going to be migrants on them. That’s themain and most obvious reason why this is a catastrophic decision and a very wrong-headed policy. Any further Western military intervention in Libya itself, which is apparently – unbelievably – now being considered will only increase the level of anger and bitterness against the West but it will also lead to more destruction and devastation. That’s the driver of the migrant crisis in the first place. I think this is just a phenomenally inhumane policy and a very misguided one. And it will make the situation it claims to be addressing much worse, apart from creating huge amounts of tension in the region. It really needs to be rejected and they need to think again.
RT: This EU naval mission could also need to put boots on the ground in places like Libya. How likely is that?
CN: I don’t know, I’m not part of the decision-making process. It seems almost unthinkable that the people who orchestrated the disastrous military intervention in 2011 could be considering further military action. It’s almost as if the EU and the Western powers can only think, when they think of foreign policy, when they think of problems solving, they think of killing, of military solutions.
This is clearly a situation where the military dimension doesn’t even need to be raised. What is needed is first of all an acceptance of as many as possible of the suffering migrants into European countries so that they can live some sort of a life. And secondly, there needs to be a reconstruction effort, a serious aid operation to begin to undo the massive damage the West has done in Libya.
rtv INTERVIEW WITH Gearoid O Colmain.
“We turned Libya into a safe haven for…”
Algerian army arrested three smugglers Libyan border
The Algerian Ministry of Defence, said on Tuesday that the army arrested three armed smugglers, carrying Libyan nationality, near the border between the two countries.
The ministry statement published on its official website that “the detachment of the National People’s Army belonging to the sector operational to Illizi (a border area between the two countries), stopped the morning three carrying Libyan nationality, possession of a mechanism model” Kalashnikov “rifle, and my store ammunition, two servers, and booked quad two cars payment, and the amount of financial national and foreign currency. “
The ministry did not specify the identity of the smugglers, and the reason for entering Algerian territory.
The Aldzairh paid months ago tens of thousands of military personnel, to the border with Libya, Mali, Niger, for “securing of weapons smuggling and the infiltration of jihadists,” according to previous statements by local officials.
An urgent meeting of military leaders from Tunisia to Egypt and Algeria on Libya
The military from Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria meeting before the end of this week, to discuss the developments in the security situation in Libya, according to an Algerian diplomatic source.
The source said, in a press statement, asking withholding his identity, said that “officials from Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia agreed Tuesday to arrange an urgent meeting of military leaders, from the three countries, to discuss the expansion of the influence of the pro groups to organize Daash, and fears of increasing dilation organization to other areas.”
He pointed out that “the meeting was decided after Daash control of parts of the Libyan city of Sirte, and the threat to the rest of the areas in Libya, is scheduled to attend a meeting of leaders of the Libyan military, to assess the situation on the ground in Libya correctly.”
He added that “the meeting tentatively scheduled in Cairo, but the place of the meeting may be transferred to Algeria or Tunisia, if the need arises.”
The meeting comes after trading security reports in neighboring Libya, the three Arab countries, about increasing military power of the pro-Daash groups in the country.
Libyan third round of the dialogue in Algeria under the auspices of the UN Mission in Libya
Abdelkader Messahel, Minister for Maghreb and African Affairs, University Maghreb Algerian, said Tuesday that his country will host on Wednesday and Thursday a meeting of leaders of parties and personalities Libyan effective in a new round of dialogue to discuss my government of national unity and security arrangements to stop the violence in the country.
The agency quoted the official APS news for Messahel as saying, “in the framework of the dialogue among the opponents of the Libyan crisis, will be held in Algiers on 3 and June 4 round dialogue under United Nations auspices, to discuss forming a government of national unity, security and the current situation in the country file.”
He reported that he “will take part in this round for the first time Libyan influential figures in the field” without providing Todhyat about identity.
This tour is the third of its kind in Algeria Libyan dialogue under the auspices of the UN Mission in Libya and longer.
Algeria and embraced in the months of April / March and the last two rounds of the dialogue, the two attended more than 20 personal are the leaders of parties and political activists Libyans.
Libya refuses to support a draft UN Security Council resolution to stop the immigrants about the European plan
Libya’s ambassador to the United Nations, Ibrahim Dabashi Tuesday that his government refuses to agree to a draft resolution at the United Nations agrees to European military plan to stop the flow of migrants across the Mediterranean waters.
The Libyan ambassador said in an interview with Agence France-Presse that as long as European governments discussed the plan with the Libyan militia, which controls the coastal territory, the green light given to the government will not issue a decision of the United Nations.
He added, “Libya’s position is clear: as long as the European Union and some other countries do not deal with the government as the sole legitimate representative of the Libyan people, will not receive any approval of us.”
Asked EU foreign minister Federica Mugerebe last month from the UN Security Council to support the European plan to confront the crisis of migrants to use military force against smugglers.
And operates a number of member states of the United Nations – Britain, France, Lithuania, and Spain – with Italy to draft a new resolution authorizing an international naval forces of the EU’s use of force in Libyan waters.
However, the decision requires the approval of international Libyan government to carry out the recognized those military operations that can also take place on the coastal territory.
And it forced the internationally recognized out of Tripoli and set up its headquarters in the city of Tobruk, the Libyan government, but the United Nations mediated for months to form a new national unity government.
Government Tobruk and sent an envoy to Brussels last week, as Foreign Minister Mohamed Aldayri visited EU headquarters this week for further talks on the European plan.
Despite the meetings, but the Dabbashi stressed that the Libyan government will not agree to the resolution.
“I think that the decision will not issue at all.”
Dabashi acknowledged that the European Union’s new naval force could act in the Mediterranean waters without obtaining the approval of the UN Security Council, but added that it “will have consequences.”
“I do not think they will go away without a decision of the Security Council.”
He continued, “It’s about this Bmaahna regional and our territory.” And it became Libya, which suffers from violence since the ouster of the Great Jamahiriya in 2011 by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the scene of human smugglers who transport refugees in rickety boats across the Mediterranean to Europe.
RAT BROTHERRHOOD UNO ambassador Bernardino Léon-Gross: The warring parties in Libya is not strong to win the war
Envoy of the United Nations in Libya, Bernardino Leon, on Tuesday, the eve of the new Libyan talks, that “no military solution” in this country where many factions deployed a “strong enough to engage in a war, but they are too weak to be able to It is won. “
He continued to Léon during the US global forum – Islamic in the Qatari capital Doha: “There is no military solution in Libya”, before announcing that a meeting of the parties to the Libyan and Libyan political leaders will be held Wednesday.
The United Nations and the Algerian Foreign Ministry announced that a meeting will be held in Algeria hotels.
The UN envoy said he believed that “75% of the Libyan political leaders want peace, and the majority of the groups are now supporting a political solution.”
He also said that Léon There are many factions “strong enough to go to war, but they are too weak to be able to be won.”
And it held several rounds of negotiations between the parties to the conflict in Libya without tangible results.
The United Nations is seeking for several months to reach a political settlement to end the conflict in Libya over the formation of a national unity government one.
He announced Bernardino Leon last month that the United Nations would provide a draft agreement for the fourth time in the hope that the parties agree.
Non recognised Brotherhood RAT MAFIA “Ghwell” of Tripoli request “technical assistance” from Europe
“Ghwell”is obviously, non-internationally recognized, and which is based in the Libyan capital Tripoli-based, “technical assistance” from the Europeans to combat illegal immigration and assistance to “dialogue” with the internationally recognized in Tobruk government, according to the newspaper Le French Figaro.
The TRIPOLI terrorist ‘government’ also demanded that the unrecognized humanitarian and diplomatic aid, technical assistance, Katsoidha container vessel and drones and satellites allow them to fight against illegal immigration in the Mediterranean.
The RAT-MAFIA Brotherhood (so-called ‘government’) of Tripoli called for more cooperation between Morocco and Europe countries, including France and Italy in order to dismantle the mafia forces working in the Mediterranean.
PICTURE: Brotherhood alligned King Idris and Prime Minister Mahmoud Muntasser rule Libya in 1952
TABOO SEX PRACTICE (akin to King Idress) to return in LIBYA via the BROTHERHOOD & DAASH
SODOMY of DAASH and the Brotherhood Promted for Legalisation in LIBYA
Jihad private ladies and female marriage, revealed sunrise Algerian newspaper, in a two-part investigation published Monday and Tuesday, that Daash Libya, supports a new kind of jihad, marriage to male as well.
The newspaper said in their investigation in which several defendants met with belonging to Daash, and detainees with the fight against terrorism in Libya, said that a number of them spoke about the legalization of sodomy organization, and coercion of belonging to youth and adolescents to exercise it under the threat of blackmail and photography.
The newspaper quoted a young man in the nineteen-year-old is accused of slaughtering and slaughter and the liquidation of a number of military Libyans, that the organization’s leaders are forced adolescents and young people to homosexuality.
Retreat and Video
He adds that he lured “to a mosque in the eastern region pm, and asked me to mean that the mosque I and many of the young people in my age to read the Koran, but I was surprised when I entered that of the Imam at the mosque” retreat “of its own practiced crowbar act, he and many of Princes against a young man in age, and added that the young Imam assaulted him “sexually within that being alone and I was not the only existing, while some people are Ptsoerna”.
He explained the young Libyan “Then they told us we are now affiliated to them in the marriage and that the Jihad told to do what we do, otherwise they would be deployed by the video on the Internet, and for fear of scandal, we stayed with them.”
He said another defendant modern age as well: “There was an imam named Marwan Buraiki has many students, the brothers who was the organization takes them to the mosque on the basis of memorizing the Quran, and when I entered for the same purpose, and I saw that the same Imam enters the young men to his own privacy and Bjmaath and have sex with men or the so-called Jihad have anal sex with men. “
On the other hand, the paper said, that those involved in the killing and slaughter of Daash, Ihzawn smart cover to deflect blame them or suspicions, and so handed over their passports after each process to the organization that Echtmh stamp out in the direction of Turkey.
It quoted one of those involved: “take the Passport to Turkey and Echtmunha then re our passports so as not to be afraid, and personally sealed me Jawazaaly basis I stayed 20 days in Turkey, and that at the time I was here I conduct the liquidation, and not the only one, all young recruits to carry out they murder them the same command from the door of protection. “
And whether Turkey was the only country involved in the topic Reply boy, saying: “For the young people I know were all Turkish stamp their passports, and the rest I do not know.”
The newspaper added: “to refer Sunrise obtained a copy of the passport of the accused, and the Turkey Airport seal at a time he was to carry out missions in Libya.”
Names steadfast • Maj corner Assad • war, reports:
“Daash” raping young leaders in the Libyan mosques under the camera lens
Knows each one of us what is the threat posed by al “Daash” terrorist on the whole world, this organization is committed atrocities and crimes of murder and rape of women, but what is new is that this organization does to other crimes make it closer to the “homosexual state” than to “Islamic state” alleged.
On this matter, the deployment site, “Sunrise” Algerian news
Interview with a militant for the “Islamic State”, who was captured in Libya, has narrated the Algerian newspapaer site, terrible atrocities, perverted, corrupt, bizaar and unusual, carried out by the organization with its members.
” ‘Sunrise’ Algerian news” spoke to the young terrorist, who merely is at the age of 19 years, called “Masoud Azim Healer”,
and who has participated in the 90 process to eliminate the enemies of “Daash”, reports that they are involved in printing false passports, grave sexual harassment, and other harassments against them. by the leaders of the terrorist organization process.
He has admitted to killing ‘Masood Sheikh Abdul Salam Daifallah Hassi’, as he went to his car after attending joint prayers in a mosque in Benghazi. He has justified the act because they had forced him to do perform this terrorism either at gunpoint, or sexual rape by the group leaders.
The young terrorist pointed out that “Daash leaders”, as doctrine, that they use compulsory homosexual-force upon their young initiated fighters, which the young fighters must permit them to have with them.
Masoud explained that, one day, he decided to go with some of his friend-fighters, of the same age, to the mosque to read the Koran.
And upon entering the mosque, inside the mosque, they were surprised by the presence of another wing of the Imam, where he resides imam and a few other leaders, that they were raping a young boy inside the mosque!. Then the homosexual Imam directed his words to Massoud and his friends, that the same will happen to them if if they use the camera in this suite or photograph anything. When completed the process of raping a young boy, the Imam told them that they belong legally to those leaders based on fatwas of (what they called) “Jihad marriage” (THIS IS SOMETHING DREAMED-UP BY ‘Mufti’ SADAK GHARYIANI).
Said the young man who suffered from a rape that he had been threatened if he fled, or if he did not implemented given commands;
and these recordings will be posted on the Internet, which Sasiba stigma, showing that they were always being forced to kill human beings and car bombings.
Thay had issued, as imams of “Daash” in Libya, (socalled) ‘fatwas’ authorizing the establishment of “Sex and the intimate relationships” with young jihadists, because of the lack of women to meet the sexual needs of the jihadists,
while publicly, they were as an organization in Iraq, executing homosexuals, by throwing them from rooftops.
(If ? this alone does not prove that WAHHABIISM is CORRUPT and a vile abomination, then nothing does !!)
‘Gays’ honor King Idris Senussi in Benghazi 2011
Sodomy and pedophilia in WAHHABIISM
also plural & ‘Childhood marriages’ (which MU’ammar al-Qathafi totally did away with in LIBYA).
That is WAHHABI FALSE and CORRUPT interpretation of the Holy Qur’an !! SHAME–
wait until they see their outcome before the ETERNAL JUDGEMENT SEAT !
‘Room Zintan operations’:
Video from one phone to Libya a terrorist who commented in the ambush Hradm fighter and Kharijites and pawns ‘Roma’ autistic under Khaled al-Sharif and Belhadj and Salaabi
and the religion which Ttjar Libyan blood of brothers and associates of these are Jews who do not like reconciliation and the response was harsh on them ..
Herbh those who managed them in Hedda video
A tribute to the men of Libya from the National Army and the forces supporting him in all axes.
Allah is great and thankfully.
VANISHED DREAM (destroyed by NATO):
Today was supposed to be the completetion of, and opening of, the ’69 tower of Tripoli Mermaid upon the river’.
The project was proposed by the Libyan Youth League by the Association for a project to Libya tomorrow and got used to the proposal has been initiated and implemented in the cessation of work by the year 2011, a service tower companies and public and private institutions …
Harkikm image from the archive ….
Anchaellh unknown future will be better …
On the idea of the year 2015 it was supposed to be ending the year in which many of the companies, which began construction in many centers and towers and tourist villages you I shall publish pictures # soon, and some of them still in the middle of construction, everything and all Stopped.
On completion of this renaissance, it was our country will be the African country and the Arab developement as first, which owns all real estate investments within its territory, and this is thanks to God and then l-Mjunb who has been Libya gathered all their forces from an external investment and volatile oil revenue earnings to assemble
and all this was done as classified by the ‘World Bank’ (and totally without their ‘help’) for the year 2010 economically making ‘The GREAT JAMAHIRIYA’, the strongest country in the world. Who has never borrowed from any external bank and does not live by any benefits from any state …
GREEN NAFUSA WESTERN MOUNTAINS:
Room Zintan operations:
Statement of the Supreme Council for the tribes of Zintan on dialogue in Gado.
Rejecting any initiative adopted by the city contributing to the fighting of our Army and fight of our children.
One must choose a suitable place to work, and Witmer crowned with success.
In the decision to withdraw the entire Roma Libya from the Western Region..
as of tonight …Oh God tomorrow .badn
We wish all of the cities that will be free to take their young Liberals security ..
and all the vital centers wherever.
Our forces arrest a group of DAASH Oatervo. They Ato across MISURATA Airport.
Image to escape from Sirte, Mzrath militias raise the white irrigations
Colonel Ali Drissi al-Hlmana battalion commander ‘132 Tolmeitha’ …
Now in the cement factory .…
Abaka field commander after my lesson and Maaketbohish Aketbo Libyan army …
After Abaka leader of their tribe and the tribe me
uncompounded Nature Aketboh Libyan army ..
I Zarq by this snapshot
How Israel Was Busted Nuking Yemen
Posted by Ian Greenhalgh on 29 May 29, 2015
Israel nuked Yemen, period. This is hard fact that has been 100% confirmed.
By now, every VT reader will be aware that Israel dropped a neutron bomb on Yemen on behalf of their Saudi allies. As well as the readers of VT, a billion Arabs also know this truth, every Arabic media outlet picked up the VT story as have the Russian outlets Pravda, Russia Today and Sputnik News. This story is too big to die, it is worldwide.
Israel nuked Yemen, period. This is hard fact that has been 100% confirmed.
Just watch the video, the scintillating pixels are caused by particles from the nuclear explosion hitting the camera’s sensor, there can be no other explanation; note the white hot ball of plasma seen briefly before the huge detonation.
The camera never lies
Until mobile phones with cameras and small video cameras were developed, small florescent lights were used as emergency nuclear explosion/radiation detectors. Now, phones and CCD video cameras have become dependable “slam dunk” nuclear detectors.
The next few words are the technical explanation of why we are absolutely certain we are dealing with a nuclear event, with no questions whatsoever. This is information available to all member of the press, the military, the scientific community and the general public. This means, of course, that anyone in “denial” of our assertion, proven with this much certainty, is defective as to mental function or suffers from moral degeneracy.
The combination of the cameras plastic lens and the photoelectric effect produced in the cameras CCD pick up chip (because it is basically a very large array of photo diodes) allows them to act as very good detectors of high level ionizing radiation. Low level radiation in this case is not of concern because it will not immediately kill you or have long term negative health effects.
By simply pointing the camera at an explosive event it will immediately determine if it is nuclear or not. When the camera’s CCD pick up chip is overloaded by excess radiation it will pixelize showing white sparkles all over the picture of the fireball or blast image area.
Nuclear War has Begun in Yemen
Posted by Gordon Duff, Senior Editor on 28 May 2015
Denial becomes impossible without insanity
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation — the property of luminescence when excited by ionizing radiation. Luminescent materials, when struck by an incoming particle, absorb its energy and scintillate, (i.e., re-emit the absorbed energy in the form of light). Sometimes, the excited state is metastable, so the relaxation back down from the excited state to lower states is delayed (necessitating anywhere from a few nanoseconds to hours depending on the material): the process then corresponds to either one of two phenomena, depending on the type of transition and hence the wavelength of the emitted optical photon: delayed fluorescence or phosphorescence, also called after-glow.
A scintillation detector or scintillation counter is obtained when a scintillator is coupled to an electronic light sensor such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT), photo-diode, or silicon photomultiplier. PMT’s absorb the light emitted by the scintillator and re-emit it in the form of electrons via the photoelectric effect. The subsequent multiplication of those electrons (sometimes called photo-electrons) results in an electrical pulse which can then be analyzed and yield meaningful information about the particle that originally struck the scintillator. Vacuum photo-diodes are similar but do not amplify the signal while silicon photo-diodes, (CCD cameras) on the other hand, detect incoming photons by the excitation of charge carriers directly in the silicon. Silicon photo-multipliers consist of an array of photo-diodes which are reverse-biased with sufficient voltage to operate in avalanche mode, enabling each pixel of the array to be sensitive to single photons.
The first device which used a scintillator was built in 1903 by Sir William Crookes and used a ZnS screen.The scintillations produced by the screen were visible to the naked eye if viewed by a microscope in a darkened room; the device was known as a spinthariscope. The technique led to a number of important discoveries. Scintillators gained additional attention in 1944, when Curran and Baker replaced the naked eye measurement with the newly developed PMT. This was the birth of the modern scintillation detector.
Applications for scintillators
Scintillators are used by the American government as Homeland Security radiation detectors. Scintillators can also be used in neutron and high energy particle physics experiments, X-ray security, nuclear cameras, computed tomography and gas exploration. Other applications of scintillators include CT scanners and gamma cameras in medical diagnostics, and screens in older style CRT computer monitors and television sets.
The use of a scintillator in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube or a CCD camera finds wide use in hand-held survey meters used for detecting and measuring radioactive contamination and monitoring nuclear material. Scintillators generate light in fluorescent tubes, to convert the ultra-violet of the discharge into visible light. Scintillation detectors are also used in the petroleum industry as detectors for Gamma Ray logs. ( Note small compact fluorescent light bulbs can also be used in an emergency to detect radiation bursts from a nuclear event. They will flash or glow under radiation exposure).
Plastic scintillators and the CCD camera, cell phone connection.
Plastic scintillators are the most common type of radiation detectors found in everyday CCD video cameras, cell phone cameras and home security cameras. With little or no modification at all they can be used as simple radiation detectors for emergency self protection from nuclear blasts and high background radiation levels or to document nuclear detonations. The combination of the cameras plastic lens and the photoelectric effect produced in the cameras CCD pick up chip (because it is basically a very large array of photo didoes) allows them to act as very good detectors of high level ionizing radiation. Low level radiation in this case is not of concern because it will not immediately kill you or have long term negative health effects.
By simply pointing the camera at an explosive event it will immediately determine if it is nuclear or not. When the cameras CCD pick up chip is overloaded by excess radiation it will pixelize showing white sparkles all over the picture of the fireball or blast image area. If you are looking to protect yourself from high level ionizing radiation produced by depleted uranium anti tank rounds or after a nuclear blast this will work. For lower level radiation effects usually just putting black electrical tape over the cameras lens is sufficient enough to detect lower radiation levels. Once the background radiation level has drooped off after an explosion. Usually after about 3 hours or more excluding ground zero where levels will remain higher for a longer period of time the CCD cameras may not be sensitive enough to detect these lower levels of radiation and a better detector will be required. However for emergency use this this process altho crude will work.
If you have an Android or Apple smart phone there are several APPS that will allow you to use your phone as a simple radiation detector/ Geiger counter. Some work better than others and several are actually fake or toy apps so user be ware make sure the APP really works.
Types of scintillators
The term “plastic scintillator” typically refers to a scintillating material in which the primary fluorescent emitter, called a fluor, is suspended in the base, a solid polymer matrix. While this combination is typically accomplished through the dissolution of the fluor prior to bulk polymerization, the fluor is sometimes associated with the polymer directly, either covalently or through coordination, as is the case with many Li6 plastic scintillators.
Polyethylene naphthalate has been found to exhibit scintillation by itself without any additives and is expected to replace existing plastic scintillators due to higher performance and lower price.
The advantages of plastic scintillators include fairly high light output and a relatively quick signal, with a decay time of 2–4 nanoseconds, but perhaps the biggest advantage of plastic scintillators is their ability to be shaped, through the use of molds or other means, into almost any desired form with what is often a high degree of durability. Plastic scintillators are known to show light output saturation when the energy density is large ( Birks’ Law).
The most common bases are the aromatic plastics, polymers with aromatic rings as pendant groups along the polymer backbone, amongst which polyvinyltoluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) are the most prominent. While the base does fluoresce in the presence of ionizing radiation, its low yield and negligible transparency to its own emission make the use of fluors necessary in the construction of a practical scintillator.
Aside from the aromatic plastics, the most common base is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), which carries two advantages over many other bases: high ultraviolet and visible light transparency and mechanical properties and higher durability with respect to brittleness.
The lack of fluorescence associated with PMMA is often compensated through the addition of an aromatic co-solvent, usually naphthalene. A plastic scintillator based on PMMA in this way boasts transparency to its own radiation, helping to ensure uniform collection of light. Other common bases include polyvinyl xylene (PVX) polymethyl, 2,4-dimethyl, 2,4,5-trimethyl styrenes, polyvinyl diphenyl, polyvinyl naphthalene, polyvinyl tetrahydronaphthalene, and copolymers of these and other bases.
Also known as luminophors, these compounds absorb the scintillation of the base and then emit at larger wavelength, effectively converting the ultraviolet radiation of the base into the more easily transferred visible light. Further increasing the attenuation length can be accomplished through the addition of a second fluor, referred to as a spectrum shifter or converter, often resulting in the emission of blue or green light.
Gaseous scintillators consist of nitrogen and the noble gases helium, argon, krypton, and xenon, with helium and xenon receiving the most attention. The scintillation process is due to the de-excitation of single atoms excited by the passage of an incoming particle. This de-excitation is very rapid (~1 ns), so the detector response is quite fast.
Coating the walls of the container with a wavelength shifter is generally necessary as those gases typically emit in the ultraviolet and PMTs respond better to the visible blue-green region. In nuclear physics, gaseous detectors have been used to detect fission fragments or heavy charged particles.
The most common glass scintillators are cerium-activated lithium or boron silicates. Since both lithium and boron have large neutron cross-sections, glass detectors are particularly well suited to the detection of thermal (slow) neutrons. Lithium is more widely used than boron since it has a greater energy release on capturing a neutron and therefore greater light output.
Glass scintillators are however sensitive to electrons and γ rays as well (pulse height discrimination can be used for particle identification). Being very robust, they are also well-suited to harsh environmental conditions. Their response time is ≈10 ns, their light output is however low, typically ≈30% of that of anthracene.
Response to various radiations
Scintillation counters are usually not ideal for the detection of heavy ions for three reasons:
the very high ionizing power of heavy ions induces quenching effects which result in a reduced light output (e.g. for equal energies, a proton will produce 1/4 to 1/2 the light of an electron, while alphas will produce only about 1/10 the light;
the high dE/dx also results in a reduction of the fast component relative to the slow component, increasing detector dead-time;
strong non-linearities are observed in the detector response especially at lower energies.
The reduction in light output is stronger for organics than for inorganic crystals. Therefore, where needed, inorganic crystals, e.g. CsI(Tl), ZnS(Ag) (typically used in thin sheets as α-particle monitors), CaF2(Eu), should be preferred to organic materials. Typical applications are α-survey instruments, dosimetry instruments, and heavy ion dE/dx detectors. Gaseous scintillators have also been used in nuclear physics experiments.
The detection efficiency for electrons is essentially 100% for most scintillators. But because electrons can make large angle scatterings (sometimes backscatterings), they can exit the detector without depositing their full energy in it. The back-scattering is a rapidly increasing function of the atomic number Z of the scintillator material.
Organic scintillators, having a lower Z than inorganic crystals, are therefore best suited for the detection of low-energy (< 10 MeV) beta particles. The situation is different for high energy electrons: since they mostly lose their energy by bremsstrahlung at the higher energies, a higher-Z material is better suited for the detection of the bremsstrahlung photon and the production of the electromagnetic shower which it can induce.
High-Z materials, e.g. inorganic crystals, are best suited for the detection of gamma rays. The three basic ways that a gamma ray interacts with matter are: the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production. The photon is completely absorbed in photoelectric effect and pair production, while only partial energy is deposited in any given Compton scattering.
The cross section for the photoelectric process is proportional to Z5, that for pair production proportional to Z2, whereas Compton scattering goes roughly asZ. A high-Z material therefore favors the former two processes, enabling the detection of the full energy of the gamma ray.
Since the neutron is not charged it does not interact via the Coulomb force and therefore does not ionize the scintillation material. It must first transfer some or all of its energy via the strong force to a charged atomic nucleus. The positively charged nucleus then produces ionization. Fast neutrons (generally >0.5 MeV) primarily rely on the recoil proton in (n,p) reactions; materials rich in hydrogen, e.g. plastic scintillators, are therefore best suited for their detection.
Slow neutrons rely on nuclear reactions such as the (n,γ) or (n,α) reactions, to produce ionization. Their mean free path is therefore quite large unless the scintillator material contains nuclides having a high cross section for these nuclear reactions such as 6Li or 10B. Materials such as LiI(Eu) or glass silicates are therefore particularly well-suited for the detection of slow (thermal) neutrons.
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