ABOVE: Mamukil (the LOTR prehistoric pakiderm of HARAD of the SOUTH-EAST of Middle-Earth).
MYSTERY of the Carpathian Sphinx: COMPLETE SCRIPT:
In 1999, a study revealed that the Dacian fortresses, “Sarmizegetusa Regia”, found in the Orăştie Mountains (Munții Orăștie) is only a small part of a huge 200 square km city, hidden beneath earth’s surface – the largest city in antiquity.
Also, in 2002, the bones of the ancestor of all Europeans were found in a cave in a small Romanian city, named Anina. The archaeologists named the ancestor “Ion din Anina” (which means ‘John of Anina’). These findings are grouped in the center and south-western Romania, in the same area where the famous dwarf dinosaurs (unique in the world) were found.
Marie Cachet’s unique theory about the Neanderthal and Homo Sapiens hybridization. Atala also discusses the consequences related to the hybridization for the European man, and especially the unique cultural and moral heritage that still comes to us from the Neanderthal man, our true and almost only ancestor. Indeed, Neanderthal religion and philosophy (especially linked to the cult of the Bear, which, far from being a superstition is a complex and deep cult) have had a central but sometimes invisible role in all European religions and cultures.
“Through my research I traveled back in time, to a kind of Golden Age and I invite you to understand with me this unique cult, which explains the well known rock carvings, all our mythology, our classical fairy tales, the whole European thought. The Bear Cult is like a key.”
22 June 2015 Panteres
When Homo sapiens turned up in prehistoric Europe, they ran into the Neanderthals. The two types of human were similar enough to interbreed — and both created artifacts of similar complexity.
40,000 years ago, Neanderthals and modern humans lived at the same time in Europe. Both had occasional sex together, as finds from Romania show. This is the first evidence in Europe. early modern humans and their sub-species cousins interbred much more recently, during the 5,000 years they co-existed in Eurasia.
1. John of Anina
After they’ve found a jawbone in the Anina cave, the professional cavers of the “Emil Racovita Institute” raised the question of dating the fossil. This is done using the “carbon 14 isotope”, a procedure that costs 448.91€.
But the Romanian scientists didn’t have the money (how sad is that?), so the teachers Erik Trinkaus (of the University of Saint Louis, United States) and Joao Zilhao (of the University of Bristol, United Kingdom) have agreed to scientifically date the mandible. They concluded that the relic is 40,000 years old and is the oldest remnant of modern humans in Europe.
Lead scientist Professor Svante Paabo, from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, said: “It is such a lucky and unexpected thing to get DNA from a person who was so closely related to a Neanderthal. I could hardly believe it when we first saw the results.”
The man whose jawbone provided the DNA had a Neanderthal in his family tree as recently as four to six generations back, the research shows.
More than 9% of his genome, or genetic code, may have been Neanderthal in origin. This contrasts with a Neanderthal contribution to the genomes of non-African people living today.
The rare jawbone was unearthed from the Pestera cu Oase (“cave with bones”) in the Carpathian Mountains of south-west Romania in 2002.
Radiocarbon dating determined it was between 37,000 and 42,000 years old, and the presence of both X and Y sex chromosomes confirmed the owner was male.
The jawbone was found to contain segments of intact Neanderthal DNA large enough to indicate that it was derived from a recent ancestor, one going back no more than four to six generations.
Co-author Dr. David Reich, from Harvard Medical School in the US, said: “The sample is more closely related to Neanderthals than any other modern human we’ve ever looked at before. We estimate that 6% to 9% of its genome is from Neanderthals. This is an unprecedented amount. Europeans and east Asians today have more like 2-4%.
“It’s an incredibly unexpected thing. In the last few years, we’ve documented interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans, but we never thought we’d be so lucky to find someone so close to that event.”
By ZACH ZORICH
Monday, 09 June 2014
(Wikimedia Commons, hairymuseummatt, Dr. MikeBaxter)
Modern humans share some 99.7 percent of our DNA with Neanderthals.
Ion din Anina (John of Anina)
On the other hand, based on this fragment, the two anthropologists reconstructed John’s face which has features never seen before. They contend that the skull is evidence that modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens) mated with the Neanderthal man (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis), who lived from 150,000 years ago – until 35,000 years ago.
As such, Ion (John) has revolutionized everything we knew about the anthropological theories and about the origin of modern man and his links with the Neanderthal man. Until this discovery, anthropologists ‘believed’ that Neanderthal man disappeared with the advent of the modern humans.
Because John has both types of the humanoid features, this means that they have lived together and even mated. Until the discovery of the Anina Mountains, the oldest remains of modern humans were from Africa and were dated somewhere around thirty thousand years. Immediately after establishing the age of the fossil and publishing the news, the local scientists have named the first modern European with the name Ion.
At first, the researchers thought that John lived in the cave where they found him. After further investigation, it was concluded that the cave was not inhabited.
They could not find any tools, so John lived and died elsewhere, but in the passing tens of thousands of years, the mandible reached somehow into the depths of the cave. Also, in the same cave was found the skull of a man who lived 36,000 years ago, which received the name “Vasile” (Basil).
In 2003, other discoveries found in the same place, certified that in Romania lived the oldest Europeans. In 2003 after new researches, the scientists found a piece of skull dated to be 35,000 years old, belonging to a woman who was named Maria (Mary).
chimera from Romanian cave
The group led by geneticist Svante Paabo had looked for DNA remains in the lower jaw of a prehistoric man who had been found in a cave in the Carpathian Mountains. A second find from the cave, an almost perfectly preserved skull, the researchers had not touched.’ He’s too good to damaging it’, says Paabo.
4 pictures Pale, blond, blue-eyed: The Neanderthals, a proto- Europeans The Romanian discoveries had aroused the interest of paleoanthropologists immediately after their discovery in 2002 – not only because they are among the oldest vestiges of modern humans in Europe, but also because the skull has some peculiar features. Although the distinctive chin and high round skullcap have him unmistakably as a modern man. The powerful bone plates behind the ears and big teeth, however remember the Neanderthals. Was it possible that it was a question of a kind of chimera?
Paabo had traveled already in 2009 to Bucharest, to take a sample. But his first attempt to determine the origin of the Romanian cavemen, failed – too little genetic material was found in the bone.
DNA of Neanderthals
Since then, however, he and his team have made tremendous progress. In 2010 they published the complete genome sequence of the Neanderthal, the year after that of other types of primitive man, who is now under the name’ Denisovaner’ known. In the course of the Leipzig researchers have to gain their techniques, DNA from Stone Age fossils considerably refined. Therefore, they crawled their cellar after bone powder that was left from previous tests. Even the one from Romania was among them.
7 pictures rethinking: The art of Neanderthals This time it worked. Although originated more than 99 percent of the genetic material in the bones of bacteria and fungi. However, the improved method made it possible to search in the tiny residual human genetic material specifically for insightful chromosome segments. Thus confirmed the suspicion that it was a kind of hybrid creatures in the Carpathian people: In his veins also Neanderthal blood flowed.
This finding is all the more important because it previously was no evidence of mixing of the two species in Europe. Although is now beyond dispute that it has come at a much earlier stage in the Levant to sexual contacts of both types of people – for example, in Siberia. Testify today snippets of Neanderthal genome that can be found scattered in the genome of all non – African people. For a later post in Europe, however, no trace.
This indicates that the tryst remained in the Carpathians without consequences for the further history of Europe. Paabo suspects that in the Romanian cave, a first group of immigrants lived, the more liberal use of the ancestral Neanderthals used.
Evidence of fire by Neanderthals at Gibraltar indicate that they may have survived there until 24,000 years ago. Cro Magnons or modern human skeletal remains with ‘Neanderthal traits’ were found in Lagar Velho (Portugal), dated to 24,500 years ago and controversially interpreted as indications of extensively admixed populations.
Canada: Bluefish Caves, Cinq-Mars’s team discovered a chipped mammoth bone fashioned into a small harpoon point. Radiocarbon dating 28,000 years old. Even older mammoth bone flakes found by another Canadian team at nearby Beringian sites. Means people were in the Americas long before the [last] Ice Age. (Radiocarbon dating puts the age of the mammoth bone flakes found by the Archeological Survey of Canada team at 40,000 years old.)
QUOTING MICHAEL BRADLEY (Nee 1944 as Michael Anderson de Sackville):
However, on 27 August 2011, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), quoting a spokesman from Harvard, stated that the now-accepted level of Neanderthal DNA in modern living humanity is closer to six percent instead of “from 1 to 4 percent”. We’re gradually edging toward the objective truth since that first dramatic May 6, 2010 concession in Science, and the new estimate of “six percent” very comfortably accommodates the population of both the Caucasus Middle East and Islamic western and Central Asia.
Now, assuming this sort of concentration of Neanderthal DNA in the Caucasus Middle East, that “1 to 4” percent (or, now, six percent) of world population suddenly becomes very significant indeed. It means that the Semitic peoples of the Middle East — Jews, Arabs and others (like Armenians) — must, therefore, be substantially Neanderthal.
And this sort of concentration of Neanderthal DNA seems to be the case.
On May 10, 2010 a Svante Paabo co-reseacher on the new study, Johannes Krause, said on the Mid-German TV Network that the people of the Middle East, the Semites, were at least from “10 to 20” percent Neanderthal. The Internet link to this interview on the Mid-German TV Network was deactivated on May 18, 2010.
This is precisely what I argued in The Iceman Inheritance (1978), Chosen People from the Caucasus (1992) and what Erik Trinkaus at least inferred in his The Neandertals of 1992. However, my own calculations indicate that some Middle East Semitic populations approach 50 percent Neanderthal and in some very specific small areas, 70 percent Neanderthal. Given the usually modest Semitic populations in mountain valleys and arid landscapes of the Caucasus Middle East, this sort of Neanderthal DNA concentration among some groups would not affect that “1 to 4 percent” (or, now “six percent”) of the total world population very much.
Okay, boys and girls, Ladies and Gentlemen, we come down to it. Believe it or not, I don’t like being right about this distribution of Neanderthal DNA.
Members of an incoming culture, composed of groups of shamans, warriors, hunters and stone tool specialists of immense power and charisma. Their territories, across which they traded different forms of flint, as well as hematite used as red ochre, stretched from the Carpathians Mountains in the west to the Russian steppes and plain in the east. More incredibly, anatomical evidence points to them being of striking appearance – tall, with extremely long heads, high cheekbones, long faces, large jaws, and strong brow ridges, which some have seen as evidence they were Neanderthal-human hybrids.
The Swiderians, whose mining operations in Poland’s Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains, are among the earliest evidence of organised mining activities anywhere in the world. This advanced society, who thrived in both Central and Eastern Europe around the time of the comet impact event of 10,900 BC, was responsible for the foundation of various important post-Swiderian cultures of the Mesolithic age as far north as Norway, Finland, and Sweden, as far south as the Caucasus Mountains, and as far east as the Upper Volga river of Central Russia. The Swiderians’ highly advanced culture, which included a sophisticated stone tool technology, was derived from their distant ancestors, the Eastern Gravettian peoples that thrived between 30,000 and 19,000 BC in what is today the Czech Republic and further east on the Russian Plain.
3D digital sculpt by artist Russell M. Hossain of Swiderians, who included among their society Neanderthal-human hybrids of striking appearance. This the face of the Göbekli builders.
In around 10,500 BC, I (Andrew Collins) believe that Swiderian groups moved south from the East European Plain into eastern Anatolia. Here they gained control of the regional trade in the black volcanic glass known as obsidian at places like Bingöl Mountain in the Armenian Highlands and Nemrut Dag, an extinct volcano close to the shores of Lake Van, Turkey’s largest inland sea. This brought them into contact with the communities who would later be responsible for the construction of Göbekli Tepe around 9500-9000 BC.
Yet this is no more than a hypothesis.
And Paabo know it will not be easy to reconstruct such a detailed scenario based solely on the genetic heritage. The successes of recent years, however, it optimism.’ We are hopeful that we will learn a lot in the next few years,’ he says.
PEȘTERA CU OASE
Peștera cu Oase (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈpeʃtera ku ˈo̯ase], meaning “The Cave with Bones”) is a system of 12 karstic galleries and chambers located N. 45° 01’; E. 21° 50’ in southwestern Romania, where one of the oldest early modern human remains in Europe (37,800 years old) have been discovered.
PALEOANTHROPOLOGICAL ON-SITE FINDINGS
In February 2002, a speleological team exploring the karstic system of Miniș Valley, in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains near Anina, revealed a previously unknown chamber with a profusion of mammalian skeletal remains.
The cave, which seemed to have served primarily as hibernation room for the Late Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus spelaeus),
[the BEAR CULT movie, 2014]
presented unusual arrangements such as the placement of some remains on raised rocks, suggesting a certain human involvement in the accumulated deposits.
In fact, speleologists Ștefan Milota, Adrian Bîlgăr and Laurențiu Sarcina discovered a human mandible on the paleo-surface. The karstic chamber was designated as “Peștera cu Oase” (The ‘Cave with Bones’) and the human mandible as “Oase 1”.
The latest radiocarbon dates give an age of 37,800 years BP. From a location close to the Iron Gates in the Danubian corridor, it may represent one of the earliest modern human populations to have entered Europe.
Against this background, particularly noteworthy is the fact that “Oase 1” exhibits morphological traits combining a variety of archaic Homo, derived early modern human, and possibly Neanderthal features.
In June 2003 a further research team with Ștefan Milota, Ricardo Rodrigo and Mircea Gherase discovered additional human remains on the cave’s surface. Thus, an entire anterior cranial skeleton was found along with a largely complete left temporal bone and a number of frontal, parietal and occipital bone segments.
OASE 2 AND 3
While “Oase 1” inferior jaw is fully mature, the facial skeleton is that of a mid-second decade adolescent, therefore corresponding to a second individual, designated as “Oase 2”. Further analyses have revealed that the left temporal bone represents a third individual, assessed as adolescent versus mature female, designated as “Oase 3”.
However, additional finds and work have shown that the temporal bone derives from the same cranium as the “Oase 2” facial and parietal bones.
The lack of archaeological signs such as torches, charcoal or tools could suggest that the human remains may have washed in the cave through fissures.
The “Oase 2” and “Oase 3” confirm a pattern already known from the probably contemporaneous “Oase 1” mandible, indicating a mixture of archaic, early modern human and Neanderthal morphological features. Thus, the specimens exhibit a suite of derived “modern human” features like projecting chin, no brow ridge, a high and rounded brain case. Yet, these features are associated with several archaic aspects of the cranium and dentition that place them outside the range of variation for modern humans, like a large face, a large crest of bone behind the ear and big teeth that get even larger toward the back. This mosaic of Neanderthal and modern human resembles similar traits found in a 25,000 years old fossil of a child in Abrigo do Lagar Velho or in the 31,000 years old site of Mladeč, by Cidália Duarte, et al. (1999).
Peștera cu Oase is subject to ongoing investigation. The on-site findings from the 2005 campaign are currently cross-examined at the Romanian “Emil Racoviță” Institute of Speleology, Australian National University, (electron spin resonance and uranium-series dating on 21 bone/tooth samples and 29 associated sediment samples), University of Bristol, (uranium-series analysis on 22 bone samples), University of Bergen, (uranium-series dating on 7 samples), University of Oxford (AMS radiocarbon dating on 8 bone/tooth samples), Max Planck Institute (stable isotope analysis and ancient DNA on 37 bone/tooth samples), University of Vienna (AMS radiocarbon dating on 25 bone/tooth samples).
A skull found in Peștera cu Oase in 2004/5 bears features of both modern humans and Neanderthals. According to a paper by Erik Trinkaus and others, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in January, 2007, this finding suggests that the two groups interbred thousands of years ago. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the skull is 37,800 years old, making it amongst the oldest modern human fossils ever found in Europe.
IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH
The marked contrast between the morphological modernity of “early modern” humans and even late “classical Neanderthal” trait-packages, as well as mitochondrial aDNA differences have suggested a major physical anthropological discontinuity and hence, a complete population replacement at the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition, leading to what one might call “Out of Africa with Complete Replacement” model.
However, more recent direct dating of fossils has demonstrated that early modern human remains were instead of the mid/late Holocene, hence much younger than supposed.
In this context, the particular importance of the “Peștera cu Oase” findings resides both in the mixture of modern human and archaic (Neanderthal) features and in the fact that they are sufficiently complete to be taxonomically diagnosed and directly dated. Thus, the Oase fossils overlap in time for some 3000 years with late Neanderthals like those of Vindija Cave (Croatia) dated to ~32,000 radiocarbon years BP or less for Arcy-sur-Cure (France) at ~34,000 radiocarbon years BP. Besides, the notion that the Oase people are very close to the time of contact with Neanderthals is consistent with their archaic traits, and finds additional support in the patterns of spatio-temporal distribution of the latest Neanderthal remains.
Since genetics does not reject the hypothesis of a Neanderthal-modern admixture, and morphological and archaeological evidence suggest that Neanderthal lineages survived into later Upper Paleolithic populations, “Peștera cu Oase” findings provide a strong argument in favor of an admixture model between regional Neanderthals and early modern humans.
Arguing with chronological overlapping and morphological blending, this model assumes significant Neandertal/modern human admixture, suggesting that already on their arrival in Europe, modern humans met, intermixed and interbred with Neanderthals.
Basically, the multiregional evolution model suggests this.
As a mater of fact, I [Dale Drinnon] have identified a replica of an Almas skull from Mongolia and it is definitively Neanderthal and of historical-period origin. The presumably “divergent line” is very likely conspecific with the Neanderthals as well, and both other legends and possible relics are of midieval date, only a few thousand years old. There can be no doubt that the Almases were Neanderthals and that they persisted up until the modern period.
(RIGHT) Representation of Mongolian Almas Skull in White Jade (LEFT) La Ferrassie Neanderthal Skull
As to the “Round Eye[socket]s” of the Arimaspians, the representational Almas skull certainly shows that: And the next photo on shows the corresponding socket on the Neanderthal skull
Other Russian experts have suggested that the name “Arimaspai” is derived from “Almas” (“Aramas”+ “Pai”, also oddly similar to a Chinese name used for the Almas in the Orient, P’i pronounced “Pei” or Pay”)
And “Cyclops” does not mean “One-eyed”, it means literally “Round-eyed” and it could be a specific reference to the circular eye-sockets of the Neanderthals in this case. If so, that would be a definite reference to a specific identifying characteristic of the type. [I use the Standard Oxford Greek-English Lexicon, by Liddel and Scott. But that is the standard meaning for “Cyclops” given in most of the dictionaries. The Arimaspai are not the standard Cyclopses of Mythology and there seem to be more than one type. But in this case, that interpretation makes perfect sense.]
Checking Wikipedia and other sources, it seems there is a good deal of confusion about these Arimaspai or Arimaspians, and they were ordinarily depicted in Classical times as ordinary Scythians (Iranians). The name does have a plausible Iranian etymology, BUT there are also vehement denials that these wildmen can be considered as the usual Iranians or ancestors of known tribes. I did find a photo of a Greek vase that illustrated a Gryphon fighting with one of the Arimaspai, but it showed him as an ordinary Greek Satyr.
Geographically, the stories are muddled because several sources specify that they live in the far East (Mongolia and North China most likely) but other sources put them closer to, in the Urals and Caucasus; and some conservative sources place them in Europe, in the Carpathian mountains. I think the best indications are that the stories meant Almases and situated them in Mongolia. One feature is that the Arimaspi stole gold from the Gryphons “to weave it in their hair”. Scythians had a lot of gold (mostly as loot, probably) but this would be a separate tradition – they are saying that the Arimaspi were blondes and that their head-hair contrasted with their body-hair. In other words, what Mark Hall and Loren Coleman call Marked Hominids (which are not distinguished from Almases by this trait anyway).
The sources that place the legend in the Carpathians identify the Gryphons of the legend to a local mythical “Hen” that gathers gold ore and stones into its nest, which is possibly a local variant of the same legend but then the “Hen” would not have been a native animal either. That would indicate the story had been imported from the East as well.
The Herodotus map (left) shows the Arimaspians (Almas) situated in the area where modern maps show Mongolia, in which case his Hyperboreans were more likely arctic peoples like the Asiatic Inua (Eskimos, and the Siberian naives that are most like them).
The Mirror of Medicine illustrations are from Heuvelmans’s book Le Homme Neanderthal Est Toujours Vivant. These illustrations are reprinted in various sources and the captions do not always agree in detail.
NEANDERTHALOID anatomical traits expressed in the carved-jade skull and in the artwork in question. There ARE no other fossil hominids that have a skull of that type and with eye sockets of that kind.
Everything suggests the Swiderians possessed a sophisticated cosmology gained in part from their cousins, the Solutreans of Central and Western Europe, who were themselves related to the Eastern Gravettian peoples. They believed in a cosmic tree supporting the sky world entered via the Great Rift-the fork or split in the Milky Way caused by the presence of stellar dust and debris-corresponding to the position in the northern heavens occupied by the stars of Cygnus, the celestial swan (a.k.a. the Northern Cross). The Swiderians believed also that birds were symbols of astral flight, and that this was the manner in which the shaman could reach the sky world. In Europe the bird most commonly associated with these beliefs and practices was the swan, while in Southwest Asia it was the vulture, a primary symbol of death and transformation in the early Neolithic age. Both birds are identified with the Cygnus constellation.
Using this guise the shaman could enter the sky world and counter the actions of the supernatural creature seen as responsible for cataclysms like the comet impact of 10,900 BC, referred to by scientists today as the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) event. This cosmic trickster was seen to take the form of a sky fox or sky wolf, embodied perhaps in the leaping foxes carved in relief on the inner faces of key pillars at Göbekli Tepe, and remembered also as the Fenris-wolf responsible for causing Ragnorak, a major cataclysm preserved in Norse mythology. All across Europe, and into Southwest Asia, accounts exist of supernatural foxes and wolves that have attempted to endanger the sky pillar supporting the starry canopy, an act that if achieved would have brought about the destruction of the world.
Someone realized that only by allaying people’s fears regarding the immense potency of the cosmic trickster could stability be truly restored to the world. And whenever this supernatural creature returned to the heavens in the guise of a comet-seen as a visible manifestation of the sky fox or sky wolf-it would be the shaman’s role to enter the sky world and counter its baleful influence, a primary motivation I see as behind the construction of Göbekli Tepe.
Göbekli Tepe’s Enclosure C.
Yet there were clearly other reasons for the construction of Göbekli Tepe. Its stone enclosures served, most likely, as womb chambers, places where the shaman entered into a primal state, like that experienced before birth, after passing between the enclosures’ twin central pillars. These enormous monoliths, sometimes 18 feet (5.5 meters) in height and weighing as much as 16.5 US tons (15 metric tonnes) a piece, acted as otherworldly portals to invisible realms – true stargates in every sense of the word. And their target: the setting down on the local horizon of Deneb, Cygnus’s brightest star, which marked the start of the Milky Way’s Great Rift, a role played by Deneb as early as 16,500-14,000 BC. At this time Deneb acted as Pole Star, the star closest to the celestial pole during any particular epoch. Even after Deneb ceased to be Pole Star around 14,000 BC, due to the effects of precession (the slow wobble of the earth’s axis across a cycle of approximately 26,000 years), its place was taken by another Cygnus star, Delta Cygni, which held the position until around 13,000 BC.
After this time the role of Pole Star went to Vega in the constellation of Lyra, the celestial lyre. When around 11,000 BC Vega moved out of range of the celestial pole, no bright star replaced it for several thousand years. This meant that when Göbekli Tepe was constructed, ca. 9500-9000 BC, there was no Pole Star. It was for this reason that Deneb, and the Milky Way’s Great Rift, retained their significance as the main point of entry to the sky world, making it the primary destination of the shaman. Standing stones erected in the north-northwestern sections of the walls in two key enclosures at Göbekli Tepe bore large holes that framed the setting of Deneb each night, highlighting the star’s significance to the Göbekli builders, and showing the precise direction in which the shaman should access the sky world.
Göbekli Tepe’s Enclosure D, showing its alignment through the holed stone towards the Milky Way’s Great Rift and the bright star Deneb in Cygnus, the celestial swan (Pic: Rodney Hale).
Everywhere you look at Göbekli Tepe there is confirmation that its builders shared a sense of connection with the cosmos. From the strange glyphs and ideograms on the various stones, which include symbols resembling the letters C and H, to the twelvefold division of stones in the various enclosures, there is powerful evidence that these 11,000-year-old temples resonate the influence of the celestial heavens. The H glyphs seem to relate to the shaman’s journey from this world to the otherworld, while the C glyphs are almost certainly slim lunar crescents signifying the transition from one lunar cycle to the next. Even the design of the enclosures appears to have cosmic significance. Invariably the structures are ovoid in shape, with a length to breadth ratio of 5:4, numbers that could hint at the Göbekli builders’ profound awareness of cosmic time cycles not usually thought to have been understood until the age of Plato.
If Swiderian groups were the shamanic elite responsible for Göbekli Tepe, then there is every chance that the cosmic knowledge encoded into its construction came, at least in part, from highly evolved individuals who were by nature Neanderthal-human hybrids of striking physical appearance. These people were most likely the product of interactions between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans at the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic age, c. 40,000-30,000 BC. This is a very exciting realization that tells us that we might well have underestimated the dynamic potency of hybridization in the formative years of human history.
Leaping fox on the inner face of Enclosure B’s western central pillar. Do this show the cosmic trickster in the form of a sky fox?
These beings were Neanderthal-humid hybrids. Were they the true founders of civilization?
Tolkien’s Middle-Earth, true History?
by T.S. Caladan
Is it possible that the world J.R.R. Tolkien so elegantly defined for us in ‘Lord of the Rings’ has a ring of historical truth? Could elements of the ‘Hobbit’ and the following ‘Trilogy’ be his interpretations of actual events?
Jay Weidner’s work inspired this writer with a mention of ‘Tolkien’ while investigating Stanley Kubrik’s mysterious death. Upon hearing a YT of Weidner on radio, he states a small tidbit of info this writer has come across down through the years…and that was the colorful characters and strange events Tolkien gave the world in his epics were NOT figments of his wild imagination; they were REAL!
Consider the printed transcript of Jay’s radio show:
‘…J.R.R. Tolkien who’s the only person who can read the books in the basement of Oxford. He’s got all these (very old) books from Finland and Sweden and he’s the only guy who can actually READ them, alright? And he spends hours and hours reading all this stuff (history) that’s down there…
…and he writes ‘Lord of the Rings’ after he’s done reading it, OK? He says to his friends like C.S. Lewis…he says, there’s a whole History we don’t even know about. And, he told people in his letters that ‘Lord of the Rings’ was about Europe 6500 years ago; that the Irish were the Hobbits and the elves were the Nords. He had this whole thing figured out…
…This is all based on Truth…and he would get ANGRY when people said this was only analogy and metaphor. He would say, ‘NO! It isn’t analogy and metaphor! This is what I learned from my reading…’
…Tolkien understands this and is trying to show us that Sauron came in and forced us into a kind of SLAVERY; wrecking the planet; destroying the planet; using up all the energy of the planet for its own devices…
We don’t really know what it is Sauron is trying to accomplish, not really…He’s trying to destroy the elves who know too much and have too much power. He’s trying to trap the Earth into an energy-sucking thing and he’s creating half-breeds of CLONES, the Orcs and all those who are not really human; they’re only partially human……And, he (Tolkien) knows all this (true History) and he’s reading all this. He’s absorbing it…and so this knowledge was in our own histories, and it has all been wiped out of our known history.
Such a wide array of creatures inhabits MIDDLE-Earth from beautiful elves to variations of Orc-monsters. Does Middle-Earth connect with (pre) Middle Ages? Phenomenal thought that the magical and menacing life forms we find in ‘Rings’ could have once existed being wiped out over the course of time.
Transcript of Tray Caladan’s interview for Russian TV, Febr. 2014:
‘…I believe the ancient constructions were done with anti-gravity…powerful lasers and super-computers. Everything that we have today, they had (long ago) in a greater form… …We had cloning ! We have deserts today that aren’t natural formations. We’ve found GREEN GLASS in the Sahara; in Australia; in the Gobi Desert. When you do an atomic test and you pulverize the land with so much heat and sand that it creates glass…and we’ve done that in our tests and found this in the old deserts. There are ruins of this nuclear age…
History never progressed. Maybe Tolkien was trying to tell us this with his Lost History of Middle-Earth? Not saying the ‘Lord of the Rings’ creatures were real, exactly. But, do not be surprised to discover a nuclear age neatly hidden away from you.
In my version of the Noah’s flood story, the true version: the animals’ DNA was on millions of crystal chips (suspended animation) and placed within the ‘ark’.
The next quotes of J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis were snatched off the Internet and are revealing. J.R.R. apparently converted Lewis to the reality of mysticism, even religious mysticism…
…Myths, Lewis told Tolkien, were ‘lies and therefore worthless, even though breathed through silver.’
…‘No,’ Tolkien replied. ‘They are not lies.’ Far from being lies they were the best way…sometimes the only way…of conveying truths that would otherwise remain inexpressible. We have come from God, Tolkien argued, and inevitably the myths woven by us, though they contain error, reflect a splintered fragment of the true light, the eternal truth that is with God. Myths may be misguided, but they steer however shakily toward the true harbor, whereas materialistic ‘progress’ leads only to the abyss and the power of evil.
‘…In expounding this belief in the inherent truth of mythology,’ wrote Tolkien’s biographer, Humphrey Carpenter, ‘Tolkien had laid bare the center of his philosophy as a writer, the creed that is at the heart of The Silmarillion.’ It is also the creed at the heart of all his other work. His short novel, Tree and Leaf, is essentially an allegory on the concept of true myth, and his poem, ‘Mythopoeia,’ is an exposition in verse of the same concept…
review Tolkien’s date for the chaos of Middle-Earth: 6500 years ago. We should look at the Hobbit and Trilogy with new eyes. Not only may the creatures of Middle-Earth have some distant reflection of historical reality, but so might the actions and storylines. If J.R.R. was really writing about a cult whose evil intent was the enslavement of our planet, then he could be talking of the NWO or Templar/masons. Such slave masters are not fictitious; with their ‘Big Brother’ CBS ONE-EYE always watching us/programming us, like Sauron.
Will we be building genetic monsters in the future? The truth is ‘they’ already have. Tell me governments haven’t worked on making Super Soldiers! How different is that from cloning Orcs for battle? Why have we done such secret DNA experiments? Possibly, we have created monsters before in the buried past and are only repeating history?
Next are excerpts from:
‘Tolkien at the End of Time’
By Jay Weidner and Sharron Rose
It seems a simple story.
At first glance it appears to be nothing more than a very long fairy tale about good and evil. Peopled with Elves, Dwarves, Wizards, Monsters and more, J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings was not considered a great work of literature when it first appeared in 1954. Now it is hailed as the book of the 20th century. What is it about this book that caused it to be such a sensation? Why does it create such a warmth and resonance in the hearts of its readers? Our answer to these and other questions to be discussed in the course of this article is that Tolkien was aware of the hidden esoteric history of humanity.
Using Tolkien’s splendid tale as a tool, this article will reveal that like the great masters of old, Tolkien is initiating us into a new level of awareness of our past, ourselves and the planet we inhabit. It will also reveal that in Tolkien, somehow was embedded, this mysterious knowledge into the heart of his work. This is the real reason why The Lord of the Rings has such a great and universal appeal, for it is our true history and secret heritage that is being revealed to us through its pages. Tolkien has mined a deep vein of mythic resonance that rings true to all who delve deeply into this extraordinary work of Art.
In his epic tale, ‘The Silmarillion’ Tolkien presents us with a cosmology from the beginning of Creation to the Third Age of Middle-Earth. The ‘Lord of the Rings’ trilogy is really a documentation of the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth.
The story of the destruction of the ‘Ring of Power’ appears to have unintended consequences that bring forth what Tolkien describes as the end of the Third Age of Middle-earth. At the conclusion of this compelling story of good and evil, heroes and villains, magic and mystery, all of the fantastic inhabitants of Middle-earth, Wizards, Elves, Dwarves, and Ents disappear from the landscape of Middle-earth leaving the next Age, the Fourth Age to be ruled by Men. Aragorn, the most noble of the human race, is crowned King of Middle-earth and Men become the ultimate victors of this Great War against Sauron and his agent Sauruman that ends the Third Age of Middle-earth.
Our contention is that Tolkien somehow, someway had personal knowledge of the pre-history of our planet and the extraordinary fact that at this point in time, human history is moving irrevocably towards the end of what is known by the mystics from many of the world’s great spiritual traditions as the Fourth Age of Humanity, just as ‘The Lord of the Ring’s relates the story of the end of the Third Age of Middle-earth.
According to ‘The Lord of the Rings’ and ‘The Silmarillion’, each group of sentient beings that inhabit Middle-earth not only has a place but also a time. As the Third Age ends, Tolkien makes it quite clear that the Age of the fantastic beings that occupy Middle-earth, the Elves, Dwarves, Wizards and more is also ending. The ‘immortal’ Elves are heading for the West and ‘fading’ from the sight of humanity.
The Elves are not leaving Middle-earth because they want to, they are exiting this mortal plane because they have no choice. And so Men are left alone at the end of the book. They have learned the ways of war, the ways of metallic magic through Sauron and Saruman’s cunning. It could even be argued that the purpose of Sauron’s war was to destroy the world of Men and forestall the oncoming Iron Age and to attempt to abort the final dissolution of the Third Age. In this context, the Great War of the Ring is not so much the genocide of Men, but a struggle by a mighty sorcerer to halt the inevitable approach of the dreaded Iron Age.
This final stage of the cycle, in which we now reside, is known as the Iron Age. According to the texts, it is the Age our race has lived in for at least 6000 years. It is the period of time known to us today as history.
This period which we consider as ‘history’ equates with the beginning of the Fourth Age, or 6,500 years ago. Myths and legends that concern the events and experiences that happened prior to this time period, are said to have taken pace in ‘pre-history’. Tolkien’s ‘history’ is supposed to take place in a period of the actual Old World of this planet. Tolkien states that
the end of the Iron Age can only herald the dawn of the Golden Age. This is the Age when the fulfillment of humanities true purpose on earth and the full flowering of the primary vision of the Creator becomes manifest.
Upon reading The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, and other works of J.R.R. Tolkien, it is clear that these questions gave him much fuel for contemplation.
In this context you will not only come to understand the fundamental story that is being told to us, the mytho-poeic story and its relevance to our lives, but also why Tolkien time and time again insisted that The Lord of the Rings is not an allegory.
Tolkien’s map of the earth part taking-in the actions occuring in ‘LOTR’
The Third Age of Middle-earth
This is the age of the Great War of the Rings, as documented in The Rings Trilogy. It begins with the founding of the Kingdom of Gondor by the Faithful of the Númenóreans, the defeat of Sauron and the taking of the One Ring by Isildur.
The Three Rings of Power were brought forward into this world through the Elves innate powers of creative envisioning for the distinct purpose of preserving beauty in the world. These Rings did assist in the slowing of aging and deterioration, but unlike the One Ring, they did not confer the power of invisibility.
At the same time, in the depths of the subterranean fire of his Evil Kingdom, Sauron secretly forged the One Ring that held within it the power of all the Rings. The One Ring gave him ultimate control over the other Rings, for it granted him the ability to read the thoughts of anyone who used them, influence their actions, and in the end bind them to his will. Due to the fact that Sauron had the one Ring he easily gained control over the minds and wills of the largest part of the Númenóreans, which led to the downfall of this first great Kingdom of Men.
To cement his dominion over Middle-earth, Sauron had secretly forged the One Ring. But as Tolkien tells us, in order to do this he was “obliged to let a great part of his own inherent power pass into the One Ring.”
By placing so much of his own Ka’ into the One Ring, Sauron was able to infect the minds, disturb the hearts and influence the actions of all those who possessed it with his evil intentions. His ‘Ka’, or psychic residue, contaminates all who touch the Ring, binding them to him bending their will, twisting their minds. Like a vampyre from the ancient tales, Sauron, through the vehicle of the Ring, inserts within them the stain of his dark force and indelible fingerprint of evil. While the Ring may for a time, lengthen the days of a living being, slowly and inevitably it sucks up their life force and will to resist him.
Tolkien tells us that “so great was the Ring’s power of lust that anyone who used it became mastered by it; it was beyond the strength of any will (even his own) to injure it, cast it away or neglect it.”
Gollum, Bilbo, Frodo and most likely all of the others that bore the Ring, made the happy discovery that they would not age as long has they had it in their keeping. Bilbo’s age catches up with him nearly immediately after he gives the Ring to Frodo. This is the ‘false immortality’, or as the eminent scholar and historian Robert Lawlor calls it, ‘premature immortality,’ that is both an indication of our desires for the Golden Age and a trap that will condemn our souls. This false immortality destroys the true gift of humankind, which lies in the possibility of the ultimate re-union with the Divine.
But one must realize that the Ring, or the Machine, is an addiction, just as evil is an addiction- and like every addiction- it is filled with denial. As soon as Boromir touched the Ring, he could not resist its call. The pitiful creature Gollum, (whose name and nature is most likely derived from the legends of the golems created by the evil dark alchemists cum sorcerers of Seventeenth century Europe), is practically consumed by it.
Bilbo, for a moment turns almost demonic in his desire to keep the Ring and the closer he gets to Mt. Doom, the more the bright selfless spirit of valiant Frodo becomes weighted down by it and obsessed with it. This power of the Ring is clearly made evident with the weakening of Frodo’s body and spirit in each successive time he chooses to put it on his finger. In The Return of the King, he describes this experience,
“No taste of food, no feel of water, no sound of wind, no memory of tree or grass or flower, no image of moon or star are left to me. I am naked in the dark, Sam, there is no veil between me and the wheel of fire. I begin to see it even with my waking eyes, and all else fades.”
It is the insertion of Sauron’s Ka into the One Ring and its subsequent invasion of and supremacy over the ‘free will’ of both Gollum and Frodo that in the end lead to Saurons demise. For even though Frodo, as he stands at the Crack of Doom, is overpowered by Sauron’s dark force embedded in the Ring and chooses to deny the quest and keep the Ring for himself, it is his pity, generosity and compassion towards the miserable creature, coupled with Gollum’s all-consuming greed that brings about the destruction of the Ring. With this destruction, comes dissolution of Sauron’s power.
In the ancient teachings on the Four Ages, as the cycle of time unfolds, the world and its inhabitants take on greater and greater density and therefore ‘magic’ localizes into more and more dense material. The Ring is the perfect embodiment for the densification of these magical energies. Indeed, as Frodo gets closer to Mt. Doom the Ring grows heavier and Frodo grows more tired. Frodo himself begins to show signs of corruption the longer he bears the Ring.
This corruption carries its weight all the way to the end when despite overwhelming odds, Frodo, Sam and Gollum actually make it to the brim of Mt. Doom.
At this point Frodo apparently abandons his quest to destroy the Ring. For now the band of metal has become a prison from which Frodo cannot escape.
Tolkien tells us that even the smallest of us is important. That creatures like the Hobbits Frodo and Sam can virtually alone defeat the powers of darkness and that they have an invisible ally that makes sure that they succeed.
It is only through the greed of Gollum that the Ring falls into Mt. Doom.
It concludes with the destruction of the Ring of Power and the coronation of Aragorn as King of Middle-earth. This signals the end of the Third Age and third phase of the bid for ultimate power by the forces of evil.
In each Age, these opposing forces are pitted against each other and ultimately a great battle ensues between them, which becomes the transitional phase between one Age and the next. There is a simultaneous cleansing of the world and suppression and binding of the manifestation of evil. At the same time at the end of each Age there is a separation or veil that arises and the pure lands of the Gods and immortals disappear from the sight of those beings who still dwell in Middle-Earth.
Through a unique constellation of innate gifts, experiences and other factors, which led to a deep philosophical understanding of the forces that shape our reality, J.R.R. Tolkien was able to become a witness to, and documenter of, the deeply profound spiritual history of humanity, especially that of the English, Celtic and Northern Peoples of Europe. He describes these gifts as a ‘sensibility to linguistic patterns’, which have an emotional effect on him in the same manner as color or music; the ‘passionate love of growing things’ and a ‘deep response to legends that have what he called the North-western temper and temperature.’
Through his lifetime of research and attunement to the sacred origins of language, through the art of ‘listening’ and pondering the relationship of sound to manifestation, communication and the origins of the root language of a race, Tolkien came to realize that each name, word and descriptive phrase was the current manifestation of a cultural tapestry that wove itself backwards through thousands of years of history.
In other words, his study of the history of language placed Tolkien at the paragon of arcane knowledge that, once decoded, revealed the secret history of our race. The Bible, tells us that,” In the beginning was the word” and it was through his studies into the origins and development of words and language, as well as the great legends of ancient civilizations that Tolkien came to understand the way that a culture is shaped and re-shaped through history. The ‘quality’ of time would also have been revealed to him through his study of the history of linguistic meaning.
As words are reshaped they reflect the ‘quality’ of their era. Like anyone who delves ever more deeply backwards into history, Tolkien came upon the essential questions; Who/what are the forces that shape and re-shape history? What is their source? What is their fundamental purpose? What is our relationship to these powerful forces? Who are we?
While pondering questions such as these, Tolkien came to understand that it was very likely that, once upon a time, what we today would consider strange and magical forms of sentient beings, did exist in our world. Elves, Dwarves, Wizards and possibly even Hobbits, or creatures very much like them, appeared to be embedded in the languages that he studied.
Whether Tolkien actually believed that these creatures existed in our past is not as important as the fact that his understanding of philology revealed their presence. Did his attunement to the subtle vibratory frequencies of sound, an attunement more refined than the majority of humanity cares to experience in this Age of the Machine, allow him to travel back in time to a former Age of our world to perceive the presence of creatures such as these?
Tolkien himself describes the process by which he created/documented his story as a linking together of tales that arose in his mind as ‘given’ things, a record of “what was already ‘there’ somewhere, not of ‘inventing’.” By listening to and contemplating the fundamental sounds or seed syllables of words drawn from ancient European culture, was Tolkien tuning in to the essential spirit of Old Europe and the voices of his ancestors?
From his philological research, and immersion into the teachings of Catholicism, which have their root source in the Old Testament of the Hebrews and the story of Genesis, Tolkien must have become aware that each sound has a corresponding essence/ vibratory frequency that brings thought into manifestation. He could even have known about the debate on the nature of sound and words that took place in the Middle Ages between the Realists and Nominalists on the metaphysical significance of language. As eloquently documented by philosopher and cultural historian Jeremy Naydler in his book ‘Temple of the Cosmos’, the Realists argued from the perspective that all sounds are sacred, having their origins in the Divine. For them, words, express by their very nature, the spiritual essence of a thing.
Tolkien, whose years of linguistic research and decipherment had re-tuned his sensibilities, clearly had intimate knowledge of this ancient spiritually oriented view of the role of sound in the creation and manifestation of reality. In ‘The Silmarillion’, he describes the process of creation in a manner that corresponds to creation myths from numerous ancient cultures across the planet.
Tolkien uncovered the magical ‘Language of the Birds’. The weave of language appeared to be growing tighter, as these languages approached the Modern Age (that language, like our culture), our bodies and the earth itself appears to be densifying through time and the Four Ages of Humanity.
Tolkien, in a letter to Robert Murray, dated 4 November 1954, describes Gandalf as well as the other wizards as ‘incarnate angels’ sent to Middle-earth in the Third Age as stewards and emissaries to assist Elves and Men in their resistance to the forces of darkness as the next challenge for its dominion by the Dark Lord Sauron begins to materialize. Their fundamental role is to foster, nourish and strengthen this universal spirit within humanity by educating them, advising them and keeping their hearts and minds continuously focused upon the ‘ Way of the Light’.
By weaving the story of Gandalf’s continuous struggle towards the light as demonstrated in his self-sacrificing acts contrasted with the egregious, self-aggrandizing acts of the fallen Sauruman, Tolkien is again bringing into focus the unavoidable choice that befalls each and every one of us no matter how far we rise in knowledge, power and influence. But by sacrificing himself Gandalf not only saves Frodo, the Ring and the Fellowship but he is turned from Gandalf the Grey to Gandalf the White.
It is this selfless act that transforms him and gives him a greater degree of wisdom and power than ever before. For this battle with and victory over the Balrog through the depths of the underworld allows him to become an even greater ‘servant of the light’ who can more effectively challenge the dark, corrupted power of Sauruman.
The Story of the Ages and the Perpetual Battle of Good and Evil
” I believe that legends and myths are largely made of ‘truth’, and indeed present aspects of it that can only be received in this mode; and long ago certain truths and modes of this kind were discovered and must always reappear. There cannot be any ‘ story’ without a fall all stories are ultimately about the fall “
–J.R.R. Tolkien from the Preface to ‘The Silmarillion’.
To Tolkien, Lord of the Rings was a mythical reimagining of the history of Europe 6,000 7,000 years ago.
In Tolkien’s cosmology, which takes us from the moment of creation to the beginnings of the Fourth Age of Middle-earth, the essential philosophical concerns that lie at the core of our reality are brought forward and elucidated upon through the story line, thoughts and actions of his characters, whether they be Elves, Wizards or Men. By being bequeathed the gift of ‘free will’ by the Creator, Tolkien’s characters, like each and every one of us, is given the opportunity to choose between good and evil, egotism and selflessness, God and Satan- to follow the path of the light or fall into darkness and corruption. As in the epic legends such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata of India, the Kalivala of Finland and Norse mythology, in every Age of the world, there is a seduction by and fall towards darkness, with a corresponding battle between the forces of good and evil to set the world aright again for the people of the coming Age.
To gain a greater perspective on ‘The Rings Trilogy’, one must take a look at Tolkien’s history of the Ages. As in all great creation tales, the unfolding and development of the Ages begins with what he refers to as a cosmological myth. As documented in The Silmarillion, from the harmonic convergence of the Valar, (Primal Powers of the Creator) the creative vision of the Earth appears.
“In the beginning, Eru, the One, who in Elvish tongue is named Ilúvatar, made the Ainur of his thought; and they made a great music before him. In this Music the World was begun: for Ilúvatar made visible the song of the Ainur, and they beheld it as a light in the darkness. And many among them became enamoured of its beauty, and of its history which they saw beginning and unfolding as in a vision. Therefore, Ilúvatar gave to their vision Being, and set it amid the Void, and the Secret Fire was sent to burn at the heart of the World. “
Tolkien’s Valar, in order to fully manifest their vision, descend from the heavens and dwell upon the Earth, sometimes as beings of light, sometimes in material bodies. At the utmost West of the world they create their home or Paradise known as Valinor and begin to prepare the Earth for the coming of God’s Children, the Elves known as the ‘First-born’ and Men, known as the ‘Followers’. But in Tolkien’s ontology, as in many of the great epics, almost immediately there is a ‘fall’ by the greatest of the Valars named Melkor who later became known as Morgoth in the Elvin tongue. He was the original dark force who, during this First Age, perverted Sauron, one of the inhabitants of Valinor to his service, taking him as his chief servant and representative of evil. In his tale entitled Valaquenta from The Silmarillion, Tolkien describes this first ‘fall’ of Melkor,
” From splendour he fell through arrogance to contempt for all things save himself, a spirit wasteful and pitiless. Understanding he turned to subtlety in perverting to his own will all that he would use, until he became a liar without shame. He began with the desire of the Light, but when he could not possess it for himself alone, he descended though fire and wrath into a great burning, down into Darkness. And darkness he used most in his evil works upon Arda (Earth) and filled it with fear for all living things. ” (S 31)
So from the beginning of the actual formation of the earth out of the music and vision of the Gods the corruption of the Divine Art of Creation began. Having fallen from grace in a manner reminiscent of the Demiurge of the Christian Gnostics, Melkor could never create of his own accord but merely produce counterfeit versions of pre-existing beings by twisting, distorting and manipulating those created by the One. In this way, he brought forth a rift into the world. For from the moment that he ‘fell’ and turned his face towards egotism and tyranny, Melkor became an irritant that could not be ignored.
With the coming of the spirit of Melkor into the world, the great epic of Middle-earth truly begins. Tolkien’s First Age is primarily concerned with the story of the awakening, activities and ‘fall’ of many of the First-born Elves and their battles with Melkor and Sauron. This ultimately sets the stage for the expulsion of many of the Elves from Valinor/ Paradise and their first contact with the Men of Middle-earth.
The First Age ends with the arousal of the Power of the Gods against Melkor and Sauron (inspired by the vision of Ragnarok from Norse mythology), the destruction of their realm and Melkor’s expulsion from the World into the Void. The veils between the worlds begin to fall, and the sight of Paradise although still visible to the banished Elves from their Blessed Land of Eressëa is removed from the sight of Middle-earth.
The history of Tolkien‘s Second Age is primarily concerned with the rise and fall of Númenor.
This theme of death and immortality supplies the focal point for Tolkien’s tale of Númenor and the Second Age. In discussing his tale of the rise and fall of this great kingdom of Men he tells us that there were three distinct stages
In a letter to W.H. Auden, he describes his tale of Númenor :
“Of all the mythical or ‘archetypal’ images this is the one most deeply seated in my imagination, and for many years I had a recurrent dream: the stupendous and ineluctable wave advancing from the Sea or over the land, sometimes dark, sometimes green and sunlit.”
At the dawn of the Second Age, the good Men who had assisted the Elves in their battle against Melkor and Sauron were gifted with great wisdom and an extension of their life-span to that of three times of most mortals. However, understanding the innate weakness of Men, the nature of Time and how achievements in the material world may lead to attachment and corruption, the gods placed a ban on the Númenóreans; that they could never set foot on the ‘immortal lands’ or even sail towards them.
At first, the Men of Númenor, obedient to the laws of the Creator, did not attempt to sail West to the ‘immortal lands’ but throughout Middle-earth renewing and expanding their knowledge of the truth and the scope and nature of the World. All good Númenóreans, like their descendant the Dúnedain Aragorn, lived in alignment with the laws of the One and understood that death was not a punishment but an intrinsic part of the Creator’s original design for them and like Aragorn died of ‘free will’ when they felt it was time to do so.
Yet, as the Second Age unfolded, and their knowledge of artistry, craftsmanship, and magic grew, rather than accept the beauty of this gift with grace and gratitude, many of the Númenóreans slowly began to perceive it with revulsion even coveting the gifts of the immortals. Living on an island, amidst the wide sea, they became masters of the art of ship-building and sea-craft. Restricted from sailing Westward to the Blessed Lands of the immortals, they began to set their sights to the east, south and north.
By the time Ar-Pharazôn, the twenty-fifth King of Númenor came to power, the Númenóreans had established great settlements upon Middle-earth and set themselves up as Kings and Lords of Men. But all this time, the influence of the Dark Shadow began to spread over Middle-earth, for even though Melkor had been physically imprisoned in the Void, his will remained active and the seeds of corruption he had planted continued to grow in his followers and especially his servant Sauron who, in this Second Age of Middle-earth, created and began to wield the One Ring, binding many to him. Hearing of Sauron’s growing threat, desiring to have power and dominion over Middle-earth for himself, Ar-Pharazôn decided to make war upon Sauron and to take Sauron as his own servant.
Seeing the might of Númenor arrayed against him, Sauron who still retained beauty of form, power of persuasion and immense knowledge of the Black Arts, cleverly allowed himself to be taken hostage and brought to the great kingdom where after three years he had ingratiated himself with Ar-Pharazôn to the extent that he became the closest of the his counselors. Perceiving the desire for immortality, which lay at the core of the Kings discontent, Sauron spoke to him of the powers of Melkor the Dark Lord who could offer power beyond that of the Valar.
Such was Sauron’s gift of persuasion that Ar-Pharazôn turned his kingdom to the worship of Melkor and the dark, building a great temple where ghastly sacrifices were made to Melkor so that he should release them from Death. But Death did not depart from the Númenóreans, in fact amidst this evil it came sooner and a great madness came over the land.
Ar-Pharazôn, now fully under the influence of Sauron, decided to sail to the land of the immortals to make war upon them. But as in every Age, the forces of goodness and truth still lived in the hearts of some. These were the ancestors of Aragorn, known as the Faithful. Amandil, their leader bid his family, Elendil, Isildur and the Faithful to collect all the artifacts, heirlooms, books and treasures created in the days of wisdom and take them onto great ships and sail from Númenor.
It was at this time as the prayers to the Dark Lord increased and Ar-Pharazôn and his fleet moved Westward to the Blessed Lands, terrible storms and earthquakes appeared in Númenor. And at the moment he stepped upon the shore of Valinor, the Creator
“showed forth his power and changed the fashion of the world; a great chasm opened in the sea between Númenor and the Deathless Lands, and the waters flowed down into it.” In their ships the Númenóreans were drawn into the abyss. Númenor itself was overtaken by a great wave and disappeared forever. The shape of the world was changed. The sight of the Blessed Lands of the immortals was removed from the Earth.
The Earth became round and Men could only travel within its circles, never again physically perceiving what Tolkien refers to as the ‘Straight Way’.
Therefore, the Númenóreans journeyed throughout Middle-earth bringing knowledge of agriculture, tool making, and more to the Men of Middle-earth, who came to look upon these tall and long-lived Sea Men as gods. But as their delight in the nature of their lives grew, so did their desire for life-everlasting and always at the back of their minds was a yearning for the undying lands of Elves and gods. And so their inner turmoil increased and their bliss was diminished. As their fear of death increased, their wise men spent their days in seeking out ways to prolong life.
This dream of the great catastrophe that brings on the end of the Second Age, which haunted Tolkien from childhood, is given to Faramir of Gondor in ‘The Lord of the Rings’.
It is in Númenor, that we first truly encounter the crucial issue of Death and Immortality, an issue of monumental importance in both Tolkien’s work. In his cosmogony, Tolkien’s deep-seated reflections on this subject are articulated through the relationship between God/the One and his Children, the ‘First-born’ Elves and Men the ‘Followers’. In their creation he gives each race a natural life span that is unique to their biological and spiritual nature.
To the Elves he gives extraordinary grace, insight, wisdom, and loveliness of face and form along with a corresponding ability to “conceive and bring forth more beauty than all my Children.” In addition, the Creator gives them the much-coveted gift of immortality and states that, “theirs shall be the greater bliss in this world.” But in the end, this precious gift actually contains their doom. Tolkien tells us,
“The doom of the Elves is to be immortal, to love the beauty of the world, to bring it to full flower with their gifts of delicacy and perfection, to last while it lasts, never leaving even when ‘slain’, but returning and yet, when the Followers come, to teach them, and make way for them, to ‘fade’ as the Followers grow and absorb the life from which both proceed.”
Although they can be slain and return to the Blessed Lands, the Elves must remain in the world until the ‘end of days’, corresponding to the end of the Cyclic Ages of Time, and do not ultimately die until the world itself dies. And in this there is a great sorrow and poignancy. For as Tolkien states, in the end the Elves “live ultimately only by the thin line of blood that was mingled with that of Men, among whom it was the only real claim to nobility.”
Magic, and the Machine
Sub-creation, the ‘Fall’, and The Ring of Power
“Anyway, all this is mainly concerned with the Fall, Mortality and the Machine.. With the Fall inevitably, and that motive occurs in several modes. With Mortality, especially as it affects art and the creative (or as I should say sub-creative) desire. This desire is at once wedded to a passionate love of the real primary world, and hense filled with the sense of mortality, and yet unsatisfied by it. It has various opportunities of ‘Fall’.
It may become possessive, clinging to the things made as’ it’s own’, the sub-creator wishes to be the Lord and God of his private creation. He will rebel against the laws of the creator especially against mortality. Both of these (alone or together) will lead to the desire for Power, for making the will more quickly effective, – and so to the Machine (or Magic).
-J. R.R. Tolkien, The Letters of J.R.R.Tolkien:
At the end of the day, mortality, which many consider the curse of humanity is perceived as a crucial gift. In his tale entitled, Of the Beginning of Days from The Silmarrilion, Tolkien states,
“It is one with this gift of freedom that the children of Men dwell only a short space in the world alive, and are not bound to it, and depart whither the Elves know not. The sons of Men die indeed, and leave the world; wherefore they are called the Guests or the Strangers. Death is their fate, the gift of Ilúvatar, which as Time wears even the Powers shall envy. Yet, of old, the Valar declared to the Elves in Valinor that Men shall join in the Second Music of the Ainur; whereas Ilúvatar has not revealed what he purposes for the Elves after the World’s end.”
In all the Ages, the veils between the worlds of spirit and matter grow ever denser as the ages unfold. With the fall of Númenor, at the end of the Second Age, Tolkien tells us,
“there is no visible dwelling of the divine or immortal on earth. Valinor , the dwelling place of the gods (or Paradise) is removed, remaining only in the memory of the earth.” Men may now sail West as far as they may but will return only into the east and so back again. For the world is round and finite, [like the Ring] -a circle inescapable save by Death. Only the ‘immortals’, the lingering Elves, may still, if they will, wearying of the circle of the world, take ship and find the ‘Straight Way’, and come to the ancient or True West and be at peace.”
From this statement we may infer that it was Tolkien’s belief, that even though we are mortal, human beings hold a unique and powerful position in the cycles of creation. For from his viewpoint, human beings will not only continue to intertwine their energy and essence with that of the earth until the end of the current cycle, but will ultimately play a part in the creation of the next great cycle.
Here we come upon another major theme found in Tolkien’s work the relationship between Creation, Art, desire, power and immortality. True adepts from the great esoteric traditions of humanity speak of the trap of personal power and the grasping nature of the individuated ego that desires its own dominion and therefore, immortality above all else.
So, there is always the opportunity for a ‘fall’ or error (as with the WAHHABI and Free Masons, today).
Too often, like the wizard Saruman in The Rings Trilogy, the aspiring adept becomes the victim of a type of mental distortion and disequilibria, which Tolkien describes as a perversion of their Art into Power. Seduced and perverted by his/her ever growing communion with ‘forces’ that promise endless treasures, extraordinary physical and psychic abilities, power over men and ‘phenomena’, and of course, immortality, having forsaken the essential interior or spiritually oriented aim of this Divine Art becomes ensnared in an ever-tightening net of darkness and delusion that is essentially antithetical to the ultimate goal of the Great Work.
Tolkien tells us that the Elves are placed in his works to demonstrate the difference between pure unsullied magic and what we refer to as black magic or sorcery. He states that their ‘magic’ is Art, “delivered from many of its human limitations; more effortless, more quick, more complete (product and vision in unflawed correspondence). And its object is Art not Power, sub-creation, not domination and tyrannous re-forming of Creation.”
since the time of the first ‘fall’ there have been two main opposing streams of this ‘sub-creative’ magical force. The first is the development of innate powers or talents for the purpose of a growth and flowering of the original seed essence or pure vision of the Divine. This magic or Art, filled with divine light and healing power is that of those whose hearts remain true to the light such as Galadriel, Elrond, Gandalf, and Aragorn.
The second and contrary stream as defined by Tolkien is “all use of external plans or devices (apparatus) instead of developments of these inherent inner powers or talents – or even the use of these talents with the corrupted motive of dominating; bulldozing the real world, or coercing other wills.” This is the dark magic of the Machine, the black magic of Sauron, and all those beings that he bred through genetic manipulation, or the corrupted magic of the Elves, Men and Wizards, whose minds they poisoned and swayed with their dark nefarious promises and temptations.
Tolkien, in the Fellowship of the Ring, illustrates this test that ultimately exists for each one of us with every choice that we make. For, having been gifted with ‘free will’ like the characters of the Ring Trilogy, it is up to us to choose which path we will follow. Galadriel, who has taken part in the drama of the Earth since the Elder Days of the First Age, is given the ultimate test of her devotion to the Divine Path of the Light, when she is offered the Ring by Frodo in The Fellowship of the Ring; ” For many long years I had pondered what I might do, should the Great Ring come into my hands. And now at last it comes. You will give me the Ring freely!”
But having contemplated the possible results of this situation, having seen firsthand the horrific results of this type of dark magic, she recognizes the spiritual corruption that possession of the Ring would bring her;
“In place of the Dark Lord you will set up a Queen. And I shall not be dark but beautiful and terrible as the Morning and the Night! Fair as the Sea and the Sun and the Snow upon the Mountain! Dreadful as the Storm and the Lightening! Stronger than the foundations of the Earth. All shall love me and despair!”
Galadriel makes her choice – to align herself with the forces of universal beauty and harmony. It is a selfless and melancholy choice for she knows that with this choice her time in Middle-earth will be at its end. Now she will diminish, go into the West and ‘fade’.
As the Ages unfold and the forces of darkness and densification spread, there are constant warnings given concerning the use of power for personal gain. The seduction of the Satanic forces and the implanting of the desire to close oneself to wonders of the world of spirit and reign supreme in the material world.
Devotion to Divine Principles and ‘inner’ spiritual work have acquired certain powers that we would call magical or miraculous, refrain from exhibiting these powers except under the most serious of circumstances. Why is it that Galadriel, Gandalf , Elrond, Aragorn and Faramir refuse to take up the Ring? Filled with wisdom, love, and virtue, they know in the depths of their beings that their task is to be of service to the continuance of the ever-unfolding vision and laws of the One True Creator.
The Power of the One Ring
The chief power (of all the Rings alike) was the prevention or slowing of decay (i.e. ‘change’ viewed as a regrettable thing), the preservation of what is desired or loved, or its semblance. But also they enhanced the natural powers of a possessor thus approaching ‘magic’, a motive easily corruptible into evil, a lust for domination.’
–J.R.R. Tolkien from the Preface to The Silmarillion
It cannot be overemphasized that Tolkien equates the Ring with the Machine. Today, at the end of the Fourth Age, the Ring encircles us like the fence that surrounds the unicorn in the famous French tapestry. Bewildered by its beauty and astounded by its power, it seduces us into its trap. Like the Ring, technology offers us a ‘false immortality’. Like Sauron and the corrupted wizard Sauruman, unashamed of their audacity, our technocrats promise us that this ‘false immortality’ equals freedom and life. Just open your eyes and look around.
The purveyors of technology constantly promise a world of free energy and genetic miracles that will extend life and feed the world. Indeed one of their main promises is that they can eventually create an immortal human being. Technocratic philosophers even preach that it will one day be possible to download the human soul onto a microchip. This is the final seduction of the Ring or Machine that Tolkien knew would herald the end of this Age.
Quoting again from Michael BRADLEY (Nee 1944 as Michael Anderson de Sackville):
The highly romanticized world of J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings trilogy. Tolkien‘s society of “the Shire” and elsewhere (Bree, Rivendell, Lothlorian, Rohan and Gondor) was the Old European Civilization of about 11,500 BC to about 1000 BC with the Second and Third Ages of Middle Earth filling up this long era rather nicely. One wonders how Tolkien got it so “right” when he started writing during World War II and the archaeological data was uncovered only during the 1960s to the 1990s.
The enemy of the free peoples of Middle Earth was, of course, absolute totalitarianism represented by Sauron.:– the one ruler in whom everyone had to believe and whom everyone had to obey. The Lord of the Rings is about the West’s long, losing and heroic struggle against domination by the highly aggressive SAURON (servant of Melkor/SATAN).
The first fortified towns of this Old European Civilization date from about 4500 BC in Macedonia, Romania and Bulgaria — the leading edge of Neanderthal-Semitic westward migration from the Caucasus Mountains and Ukrainian steppes. The percentage of identifiable man-killing weapons suddenly jumps to almost 20% of all Old European artifacts discovered from this period (see The Civilization of the Goddess).
We must directly address a most important “by the way” here. I have just mentioned a date of roughly 4500 BC to pinpoint the time of massive and significant Cro-Magnon-Neanderthal interbreeding in places close to the Caucasus Mountains. Anyone who reads newspapers or who pays attention to electronic media will know that the time of Neanderthal interbreeding with Early Modern Humans supposedly took place about 35,000 years ago. I feel that this ancient date is merely a propaganda ploy to shove the date of interbreeding as far into the past as possible, the rationale being “how could anything that took place so long ago possibly have any relevance to the world today?”
I have already said that there were occasional and rather rare Early Modern Human and Neanderthal hybrids dating from at least 23,000 years ago as shown by the so-called “Lapedo child” in the Portuguese highlands. And there are other early apparent Cro-Magnon/Neanderthal hybrids in the highlands of the modern Czech Republic, Germany and modern Israel.
Since there are still highly Neanderthal populations in the Caucasus Middle East according to the statement of Svante Paabo’s research colleague, Johannes Krause on May 10-18, 2010, who can tell when truly massive genetic material was exchanged between Neanderthal and Early Modern Human populations? As the last so-called “Ice Age” gradually loosened its grip on Eurasia, Early Modern Humans were migrating, probably by waterways, into the general Caucasus Mountains region and onto the steppes surrounding the Caucasus foothills. Neanderthal populations were living there. Such evidence of very significant interbreeding would not be contained in old fossils but in the DNA of living peoples. And Neanderthal DNA in very large and regional samples among living Caucasus and steppe populations has not (yet) been tested. But believe me, it will be. However, we must all be wary of statistical juggling of the conclusions when these results finally come out.
I would rather stick to the known anthropological, archaeological and even historical facts. Walter Pitman and William Ryan of Columbia University proved that the present Black Sea, formerly a rather modest steppe lake in the modern Ukraine, was inundated by Mediterranean salt water in roughly 5600 BC (see The Search for Noah’s Flood, 1996). Everyone living around the well-watered steppes of this lake was flooded out and these people were forced to migrate or drown. (Some few of these people were Cro-Magnons who had followed the Danube River to eventually find the southwestern edge of this rich steppe environment, but) the vast majority of the population were Neanderthals who, under population pressure, had spread out onto the modern Ukrainian and south Russian steppes from the Caucasus Mountains and highlands.
Being displaced from their homes within two centuries, these Caucasus people were forced to migrate away in all directions. The date of 4500 BC gives reasonable time for them to have reached modern Romania, Bulgaria and Macedonia in great numbers. This is just the time when Marija Gimbutas found the first Old European fortified towns and when the percentage of Old European artifacts jumps from 2% to 20% of weapons. This makes sense, given the circumstances. Later, the composite Neanderthal/Cro-Magnon population expanded down the Danube Corridor into Eastern, Central and Western Europe.
The era of 5600 BC to 4500 BC happens to be on the very cusp of recorded human history when past events were remembered in tribal lore to be later written down into history. I have suggested in ‘Chosen People from the Caucasus’ that some early stories in Genesis of the Bible actually hark back to this time of the Flood and massive Neanderthal/Cro-Magnon intermixture.
NOW THIS IS PART 3:
The KALEVA ( “The land of Kaleva” or “Kalevia” ) :
(new edition: 736 pp. Keith Bosley’s Kalevala is a poet’s translation, impressive for its stylistic daring, its taste and its scholarly awareness and for the sheer pleasure it gives. The zest and energy of the 22,795 line epic is communicated by the freshness and force of the translator’s approach. Not only the poetry itself, but also the long introduction which Mr. Bosley provides convey his enthusiasm and personal enjoyment of the original text… The publication of Mr. Bosley’s Kalevala is, I think, a major literary event… More than any previous translation, Mr. Bosley’s should establish The Kalevala as part of our common cultural background. (Anthony James, Agenda)
The Kalevala is the national epic poem of Finland, which grew out of a rich oral tradition with prehistoric roots.
The chronology of this oral tradition is uncertain. The oldest themes (the origin of Earth) have been interpreted to have their roots in distant, unrecorded era. The newest events (e.g. the arrival of Christianity) seem to be from the Iron Age. Finnish folklorist Kaarle Krohn proposes that 20 of the 45 poems of The Kalevala are of possible Ancient Estonian origin or they at least deal with a motif of Estonian origin (of the remainder, two are Ingrian and 23 are Western Finnish).
During the first millenium of our era, speakers of Uralic languages (those outside the Indo-European group) who had settled in the Baltic region of Karelia, that straddles the border of eastern Finland and north-west Russia, developed an oral poetry that was to last into the nineteenth century. This poetry provided the basis of the Kalevala. It was assembled in the 1840s by the Finnish scholar, physician, botanist, and linguist Elias Lönnrot, (1802-1884), who took `dictation’ from the performance of a folk singer, who traveled the country in search of stories, which make up this monumental work. The version published in 1849 consists of 22, 795 verses, divided into fifty songs.
This takes place in the context of the Arheled series, being narrated by several characters from said series. It is a retelling of the Finnish mythological epic, the Kalevala, from the mouth of Vainamoinen himself. Here are revealed the fascinating myths of the balsam from which Man was brewed, the singing of the world, the forging of the sky, and the adventures among mortals of the demiurgic heroes. Chief among them is Vainamoinen, the eternal wisdom-singer, and his brother the master craftsman Ilmarinen, and their chief adversary is Ilmarinen’s mother-in-law, the terrible witch Louhi, possessor of the magic grinder named ‘the Sampo’.
The Kalevala begins with the traditional Finnish creation myth, leading into stories of the creation of the earth, plants, creatures and the sky. Creation, healing, combat and internal story telling are often accomplished by the character(s) involved singing of their exploits or desires. Many parts of the stories involve a character hunting or requesting lyrics (spells) to acquire some skill, such as boat-building or the mastery of iron making.
As well as magical spell casting and singing, there are many stories of lust, romance, kidnapping and seduction. The protagonists of the stories often have to accomplish feats that are unreasonable or impossible which they often fail to achieve leading to tragedy and humiliation.
The Sampo is a pivotal element of the whole work. Many actions and their consequences are caused by the Sampo itself or a character’s interaction with the Sampo. It is described as a magical talisman or device that brings its possessor great fortune and prosperity, but its precise nature has been the subject of debate to the present day.
The people of Kalevala are a peaceful hard working people, they have everything they need and want bar the mystical Sampo, a magical mill which will make grain, salt and gold and give prosperity to whoever possesses it.
The only person in Kalevala able to make a Sampo is the smith Ilmarinen, however he cannot make it until his sister Annikki has fallen in love. Annikki eventually falls in love with the young hard working Lemminkäinen.
All is not perfect however. There is a dark dismal land called Pohjola ruled over by a wicked witch called Louhi, and she wishes for a Sampo, but her wizards are unable to forge one. Louhi is advised that only Ilmarinen is able to forge a Sampo. Louhi sends her enchanted cloak to bring Annikki to Pohjola as ransom.
Lemminkäinen runs to Ilmarinen to inform him that his sister has been taken and vows to return her, Ilmarinen agrees to come with him and they set off on a boat constructed of an ancient oak tree.
On arrival Louhi demands they complete a simple task each, Lemminkäinen is asked to plow a field of snakes, which he does with the aid of a steel horse made by Ilmarinen. The final task is set to Ilmarinen; he is to forge a Sampo. He sets to work and, after some failed bargaining for another task, and with the aid of the trolls of Pohjola on the bellows and the fire from heaven itself, he forges a beautiful Sampo, which immediately begins to make gold, grain and salt.
Lemminkäinen and Ilmarinen are reunited with Annikki and they set sail for Kalevala. Lemminkäinen is upset when he is informed that the people of Kalevala will never be able to reap the benefits of the Sampo and dives into the sea to swim back and recover it.
Back in Pohjola, Lemminkäinen releases the mist from the prison Louhi has placed it in and it covers the whole land. When the mist clears the Sampo has gone and Lemminkäinen is on a boat heading back to Kalevala. His boat is wrecked on the ocean surface when Louhi orders that the wind be set free, and the Sampo is destroyed and Lemminkäinen presumed lost.
Lemminkäinen manages to swim back to Kalevala and manages to return a small piece of the Sampo, which Väinämöinen announces will bring great prosperity and joy to the people of the land. Lemminkäinen and Annikki marry and a great feast and dance is arranged. However, Louhi, angry at the betrayal, comes to Kalevala and steals their sun. Returning it to Pohjola, she locks it in a deep mountain cave.
As Kalevala is plunged into perpetual darkness things look very bleak. However, Lemminkäinen is still hopeful, he asks Ilmarinen to forge a new sun, which he begins work on. But wise old Väinämöinen informs him it’s futile and that they must go to Pohjola and recover the sun by force. Väinämöinen tells the people this battle will be fought using kantele and not bladed weapons. The people of Kalevala prepare by cutting trees and bringing all precious metals to Ilmarinen to forge the strings.
When the two people (Kalevala and Pohjola) meet on a frozen lake for battle, Väinämöinen begins playing and the trolls of Louhi begin to drift to sleep. Louhi tries in vain to get them to fight, but she fails and her trolls fall down unconscious. Louhi then sends her magic cape to kill the people of Kalevala but it is beaten down into a hole in the ice. Lemminkäinen marches up to the mountain which contains the sun, and Louhi turns herself into stone in fear. Lemminkäinen slices the stone door of the mountain open with his sword, releasing the sun to shine over the lands of Kalevala.
The film ends with scenes of the people of Kalevala looking to the bright sky in wonder and happiness.
Michael Moorcock‘s “Elric of Melniboné” character is based o upon the background of these Finnish tales. Michael Moorcock‘s sword and sorcery anti-hero, Elric of Melniboné is influenced by the character Kullervo.
J.R.R. Tolkien claimed The Kalevala as one of his sources for The Silmarillion. For example, Kullervo’s story is the basis of Túrin Turambar in Narn i Chîn Húrin, including the sword that speaks when the anti-hero uses it to commit suicide. Echoes of The Kalevala‘s characters, Väinämöinen in particular, can be found in Tom Bombadil of The Lord of the Rings.
1958 KALEVALA (SAMPO)