Muammar al-Qathafi looks on during a news conference at the Quirinale palace in Rome in this 10 June 2009 file photo. Photo: Xinhua
Part of a very TERRIBLE, FALSE & CRUEL BLOG by Dan Morrison
Mu’ammar al-Qathafi discussion in FEBR. 2007 television w DAVID FROST
It’s strange. In February 2007 I was part of a small group of journalists invited to travel to Libya to witness an exclusive debate, a conversation really, between Muammar al-Qathafi and the prominent social scientists Benjamin Barber and Anthony Giddens. Broadcaster David Frost (Sir David Frost) would be the moderator.
The Brother Leader and his interlocutors would be meeting at a conference hall in the town of Sebha on the edge of the Sahara to talk about democracy and representative government. The journalists — myself, Ian Black from the London Guardian, Michael Slackman of the New York Times, and a crew from the BBC — were to watch the exchange without actually interacting with the eminent personalities.
Since the Libyan CIA-led revolt erupted (NATO WAR) — four years after that strange sit-down with the Leader — the Monitor Group, Barber, Giddens, and the London School of Economics have been condemned for their allegedly too-cordial relations with The Great Jamahiriya.
al-Qathafi‘s “fantasy quality” was pronounced during al-Qathafi’s conversation with Barber, Giddens, and Frost, and in his relations with his staff. The Leader insisted that representative democracy was slavery, “and all but swore that angels, unicorns, and Nobel prize-winners were queuing up for visas to live in his Libyan utopia….”
In contrast with the terror (supposedly) shown by most Libyans when I asked what they thought of al-Qathafi, the Leader’s aides seemed to enjoy a genuinely warm rapport with him. They doted on and cared for the boss. I imagined they loved him.
At the end of the democracy “dog-and-pony show”, the organizers asked if any of the visiting journalists had a question. Not wanting to risk my visa, which allowed me to travel in Libya without an official minder, I held my tongue. Michael Slackman of the Times took the bait and “politely” asked al-Qathafi — I can’t recall his exact words — how he could talk about democracy when his people so obviously lived in fear. (OUT-RIGHT LIE!!)
There was a flurry of distress around the Leader. His aides refused to translate the question. According to two people who worked closely with him, al-Qathafi did in fact speak English, but he chose not to with most foreign visitors. In this case, it appeared he genuinely didn’t catch Slackman’s question. He looked from one aide to the other, confused, as the mood in the studio soured and we were moved into another room. [He was confused because his people genuinely LOVE HIM; and are NOT in terror of him !!..THAT IS WHY!!!]
The reporters on deadline started working at their laptops and a while later al-Qathafi came out to shake hands with us, a sort of peace offering. I had my chance, and kept back. Later we were flown to Tripoli on a musty private 737 with tarnished gold bathroom fittings….
A person was there, and now they are gone.
[The parts I left out are even far worse and unbelievably propagandised to make our IMAM Muammar appear Cruel, viscious and deluded!!!]
Mu’ammar al-Qathafi’s Tent:
and here he is now, using it as his secluded home somewhere in LIBYA:
QUOTE from Mu’ammar al-Qathafi in 2011; but still very relevent:
O great Libyan people, you are now living glorious hours. This is pride, these are glorious hours we live we are now, all the people with us. We lead the world revolution against imperialism, against tyranny. I tell you I am not afraid of storms, a sweeping term. Nor Taieijer (aircraft) aimed at black destruction. I am steadfast in my tent, my home here in the forum. I am the owner and maker of uncertainty right from glandular .. I’m here I’m here I’m here.. ”
أيها الشعب الليبي العظيم، إنك تعيش الآن ساعات مجيدة. هذه هي العزة، هذه هي الساعات المجيدة التي نحياها نحن الآن، كل الشعوب معنا. نحن نقود الثورة العالمية ضد الإمبريالية، ضد الطغيان. وأنا أقول لكم أنا لا أخاف من العواصف وهي تجتاح المدى. ولا من الطيايير (الطائرات) التي ترمي دماراً أسوداً. أنا صامد بيتي هنا في خيمتي في المنتدى. أنا صاحب الحق اليقين وصانع منه الغدى.. أنا هنا أنا هنا أنا هنا
RAT LIBYA NEWS:
NEW IMPERIALIST BRIT TRAINED NATIONAL ARMY !!! and MORE OBAMA DRONES THAN EVER SEEN BEFORE!!!
Libya: NATO-based NEW “national army” and America began Iasthaddam drones
Home news – agencies I’ve dealt with the newspaper “The Observer” in a report prepared by Chris Stephen in Tripoli carry NATO (NATO) with the task of establishing a national army to fill the “security vacuum” in the country.
The writer refers to the growing concerns about the spread of chaos and militia violence and “evidence that al-Qaeda establishes rules inside what is fast turning quickly into a failed state.”
According to Stephen, the first batch of recruits will travel to the historic military base Basingborn in England, which Libya paid 2.5 million pounds for processing.
This installment will form part of the force of up to 1,500 military will be trained over the next two years by the United States, Britain, Italy and Turkey.
This comes in conjunction with the start of the U.S. drone aircraft doing overflights in the skies of Libya, Niger, and from Italy, in addition to starting a new task for NATO is a clear mandate.
This involves “interference” at risk, according to the author, which indicates that more militia force receive support and funding from the parliament, which was elected by its members last year.
Stephen explains that “the political forces in the parliament supports different armed groups, while supporting the ‘Muslim’ Brotherhood Misurata militia.”
The two sides do not trust in the new army, and the ” ‘Muslim’ Brotherhood” are concerned that this includes military officers from the GREAT JAMAHIRIYA.
Sentard militias and criminal on the ground
The process “hammer”
(do not let anyone fool you: ZAIDANE and the “WEST” ARE SUPPORTING THE chaos AND THE MURDERERS):
It is known as the “Bhaitham Tagouris”
Which still occupies the aircraft maintenance center # 003 corresponding to the Division supply Mitigua air base, which has the secret prison, and did not betray him so far.
And that the siege of the ministries, and murder, kidnapping and extortion, and bought a luxurious house at a price of two million.
It is an entrepreneur from prison ostrich secret project area Tajourah “missing home and abroad births”.
Zaidane cost of government-led police operations in Tripoli and gives HATHEM TAGOURIS the rank of lieutenant colonel.
Do not Mesh Heca ups!!
Been disbursed to 100 Poh Leh … Livelihood of the people of Libya
AJEELAT police Crown Drstewa Year ‘four years in college, “to hell” in you. Because the state gives in the ranks on the “white” ..
(Taken from “Libya speaks”)
“VALLEY GIRL” asks:
“Have you been issued a formal decision by the Transitional Council to dissolve the interim government authorizsations ?
Did you know that sincere Gharyiani‘s home is built using the former National Security headquarters in Tripoli ?
Why is the emotion and combing outfit Darrow militias on state property?”
PROFILE OF A MURDEROUS RAT
(of more than 53 young people and many others wounded in the Benghazi Protest Black Friday massacre):
“Libya Shield” MILITIA commander denies murder, vows revenge
for his torched family home…
By Ahmed Elumami and Maha Ellawati.
Wissam Ben Hamid on Alaseema TV, Benghazi, 18 October 2013:
The commander of the Libya Shield No. 1 Battalion, Wissam Ben Hamid, spent almost two hours taking part in a TV phone-in this evening, denying that he was in any way connected with the murder earlier in the day of the Chief of Libya’s Military Police, Colonel Ahmed Mustafa Al-Barghathi. He also vowed to target the people who had burnt down his family home in Benghazi this afternoon.
Appearing in a Tripoli studio for the Alaseema channel’s “Seventh Question” show, Ben Hamid was clearly angry at highly critical comments from some of the callers, one of whom vowed to kill him if he returned to Benghazi.
Ezzedine Al-Okwak, commander of the brigade which controls Benina airport phoned to claim that he knew that Ben Ahmed had threatened Barghathi before and that he was the prime suspect for the killing. Therefore, said Okwak, if Ben Hamid returned to Benghazi through the airport, he would be killed.
Another caller was introduced by the presenter as Colonel Hamid Al-Hassi. However, the person on the other end of the line then revealed himself as Azny Barasi and proceeded to describe Ben Hamid as a “tyrant” and a “second Qaddafi”. Ben Hamid’s response was to laugh.
There were also phone calls from members of the Barghathi tribe who accused Ben Hamid of being responsible not just for today’s killing, but for the gunning down last June of 32 protestors outside the Kuwafiyah base of the Libya Shield No. 1 Battalion.
Not all the callers, however, were critical. Benghazi Congressman Saleh Gaouda, who is also a member of the National Security Committee, thanked Ben Hamid for all his work and said that he was not involved in any crime and he did not threaten the national security of Libya.
In the last part of the programme Ben Hamid was calm and relaxed. He had been introduced as a “general coordinator of the Libya Shield”. He denied that the force had any links with assassinations and explosions in Libya and Benghazi in particular. He said he thought that he had been attacked personally because some federalists believed that he was against federalism. He said that he did not have any link to any agenda.
At one point, he said that the Petroleum Facilities Guard commander in the east, Ibrahim Jadhran, who is leading the blockade of all the eastern oil export terminals except Brega, had sought to have him killed. Describing Jadhran as “an oil stealer”
(LIAR!! al-JADHRAN is a great CYRENAICA man who cares about LIBYA and her people),
Ben Hamid maintained that the PFG leader had sent people on several occasions to murder him. He said that behind Jadhran was a “smart businessman with a lot of money”. He named the individual, who, he said, was outside Libya. The businessman’s brother had sought to set up a meeting between the two of them in Qatar, explained Ben Hamid, but he had not gone because it might make it look as if he were a member of Ansar Al-Sharia.
“There are no grounds for my arrest,” he said, “ I have not received any notification from the government that recognised my involvement in any crime”.
At one point, when the presenter asked him about the Prime Minister’s abduction, Ben Hamid said that he did not wish to go into any details. He did claim, however, that Ali Zaidane had passed a list of 100 names to the Americans and that his name had been one of them.
International channel Libya Libya International Channel:
National Congress postpones discussion of the RAT Prime Minister asked the amount of (800) million for the payment of obligations to fund the budget price hearing next Tuesday
Hello you, O God, Op Post me the message this time was half past nine on the offensive Pharmacy Aladdin Island Gurji by five gunmen were Alstoali sum of money and mobile workers and beat one Modvin. God avenge them.
There is no power but from God Almighty with the knowledge base of an open mobile estimated extent possible and helps us determines where criminals and thank you very much.
Fabricated fuel crisis in the capital
Electricity crisis as well as fabricated
Petrol crisis in the capital Tripoli
Locks because of the power outages:
Turkey have indicated their willingness to restore the Ottoman
era buildings in Tripoli, Libya
(ASHA) confirmed the Turkish ambassador to Libya, Ahmed Baksh, during a meeting with Minister of Culture and Civil Society Libyan capital Tripoli beloved Secretary, his country’s willingness to renovate the buildings, which date back to the Ottoman era. The director of the Information Office of the Ministry of Culture and Civil Society just making God in a statement on Saturday, said that the Turkish government is working in two directions for the protection of these effects, the first trend is maintained in cooperation with the Libyan government, and the second trend that holds Turkey fully maintained. He said the work of God, that the Turkish government demanded some clarifications from the Libyan government for the protection available to places of archaeological dating back to the era of the Ottoman Empire in Libya, explained that the meeting came at the request of the Turkish Embassy to express their concern about threats to the effects of which date back to the reign of the Ottoman found in Libya, especially after the demolition of the shrine Murad Agha Btajurae.
RUSSIANS BACK in TRIPOLI:
Russian diplomats who were evacuated from Tripoli, leaving Tunisia now to return to Libya.
Russian diplomats are returning to Tripoli in December 8 Landed on Sunday, December 8
at the airport in the capital Tripoli plane carrying Russian diplomats
who had been evacuated at the beginning of October last from Libya.
The Foreign Minister said that he will be the Libyan Housing nine Russian diplomats
in the hotel and will be heavily guarded cordon around him, stressing that “the situation calmed down long ago.”
And Russia was acting in Libya Leonid Frolov had announced two days ago that the Russian diplomats who were evacuated from Tripoli will return to Libya in December 8 this year.
It is reported that the evacuation has been working in the Russian embassy in Libya and their family members on October 3 /
October following the last exposure Embassy of an armed attack on October 2 /
October, after the girl accused of the murder of a Russian officer Libby. Source: “Itar – Tass” + “RT”
http://arabic.rt.com/news/636578/ :روسيا اليوم
Yesterday: Memorial, Ain Zara, problematic between the army and stationed a patrol of the Supreme Security Committee
Yesterday: Behind the passage of Ain Zara, steal the contents of the Office of the company by a group fled after the arrival of security
Yesterday: Well the world, Sayeh, an armed robbery on a Chinese company, the arrest of three of them with stealing the mechanics of the company, and the rest fled away.
de Tripoli, the National Safety Authority.
Fire cab in front of a gas station Alfornaj after a quarrel and the Holocaust men Tripoli
unit Alfornaj beaten during Akhmadehm fire-drive (2 photos)
And the Gas Station and looked like the group Aspso
Shortly before Arada, armed robbery, a Toyota Hilux belonging to the Army and has stolen them and flee.
After the buoyant fire
Lat and fire in the owner of the car and head to the station he and his group and seemed to throw Lead
Group and the army were present and who tilled need only behold (what Tsourh what Tsourh)
Tell us what group the army and the Rapid Intervention
They said what our position Nqdroush Ankhaloa
And to congratulate the new rulers of Libya.
و فيها بنزينة و شكلهم الجماعة يسبسو فيهاالمهم جو جماعة الدفاع المدني بسرعة الصراحة
وبعد ما طفوا النار
ولعت النار في صاحب السيارة و هد علي المحطة هو و جماعته و بدوا يرموا فالرصاص
و جماعة الجيش موجودين و الحاجة الوحيدة اللي فلحوا فها ( ما تصورش ما تصورش )و انصاب شخص اثناء الرماية
لما كلمنا جماعة الجيش و التدخل السريع
قالوا ما نقدروش انخلوا مكانتناالخلاصةعلى ليبيا السلامة
و ليهنئ حكام ليبيا الجدد
Building in the fall of Shawqi Street in Tripoli, and Defense
Civil Etjha to the spot, according to a security source told, and
Initial reports confirm the transfer of cases to the hospital street Corner.
انهار الليلة البارحة سقف بناية آيلة للسقوط في شارع شوقي وسط طرابلس مما نتج عنه وفاة 3 أشخاص يحملون الجنسية المصرية .
وأفادت معلومات أولية أن البناية تم إخلاءها منذ فترة من قبل الجهات المعنية لأنها آيلة للسقوط وتم تعويض مالكها ، لكن الطمع جعل أحدهم يستلي على البناية ويقوم بتأحيرها لعمالة وافدة وبطريقة غير شرعية .
According to preliminary information that the building was evacuated for some time by the authorities concerned because it was dilapidated compensate the owner, but the greed to make someone Westley at the building and the Ptaherha for immigrant labor and illegally.
Security source confirmed that there are two cases under the rubble and two wounded
Street corner in the hospital, due to the fall of the building behind
School Gamal Abdel Nasser Street in Tripoli and Shawqi
They are citizens of Egyptian nationality.
Atmosphere of the country – Mustafa bridges
GREEN NAFUSA WESTERN MOUNTAIN:
Oil Minister in the interim government for reference station Ruwais, the main source of electricity in the Western Region for the entire business:
Ruwais gas station manager confirms the opening line of the gas feeder station Ruwais.
(picture shows NAFUSA GREEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS at Night)
Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon the Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions follow a gift to the day of judgment, and after,,, The Messenger of Allah peace be upon him (best charity mend fences) (recovered fall grudges among you)
The Shura Council of Elders and Rishvana aware of the situation experienced by Libya at the moment and looking forward to the national dialogue and reconciliation comprehensive lead to solutions strategy sustainable for all the thorny issues which are plaguing our country and national duty makes it imperative for everyone to call for forgiveness and tolerance, embodied on the ground for future generations and for Libya. We knocked on the following: –
1 – welcome gesture of good which resulted in the release of the detainees in the city of Zawiya and Misrata and consider it the first step in the path of national reconciliation.
2 – Nahni brothers in Bani Walid, Mujahid and tribes and Rafla throughout Mhaúkhhm return home to their families and bless them with safety and assure them that the Libyans grief and joy, and one they are brothers in religion, blood, and partners in the homeland.
3 – We call upon all the cities and tribes to tolerance and forgiveness and mend fences and the release of detainees and the spirit of tolerance in order to build a home.
4 – call for the activation of a program of national reconciliation and the return of all displaced persons camps and migrants from inside and outside the home.
5 – We support all initiatives that aim to strengthen and consolidate national unity and rejection of violence and exclusion.
God save our country, Libya, Vaafo worshipers of God for your brothers and Tsameho and Tsafho and Tsalihu and Thabo
Shura Council and Rishvana
Corresponding to the eighth month of December 2013 AD.
A group of rebels attacked the local council since few Zlitan because of the corruption that the right bid.
Refusing way to establish bidding and repeating the same names and stressed that the local council was tainted by rampant corruption, embezzlement and Awarded suspicious was this intrusion instigation of a local council member Emhemed Hammadi were among the attackers who carries Rommaneh, Akram Almazzouza and was with them Essam Aldovana and Abdel Moneim Alsaddaaa and five piasters Thowaibi.
A lot of the names I have in mind not mentioned.
No to corruption, no to steal not to Tcholls.
Statement of the local council Zliten on the suspension of work of the Council:
Because of the interference in the affairs of the local council of Zliten non state institutions and what is happening to the members of the committees of the Council of the pressures and the lack of respect by some citizens Gentlemen, you can not do with her Council duties ..
God save Libya safe free uniform ..
Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar .. Thankfully
Upon hearing the death of Colonel Salah Bohlaiqah God forgive him rallied in the city of Sirte, expressing joy and so Chmthm in his death
Since the period when the fight occurred between the forces of the Libyan army Fayalsaakh with Khawarej nominated supporters heinous become some mosques calling on the Libyan army and single out those dominated by Takfirists (Rabat Mosque)
It is news that trading in Sirte that supporters heinous Abuaaad leader in Tunisia supplements of the Tunisian army on charges of terrorism and assassination exists in the back
Two days before or Thelat people talk about the presence of bin Sufyan Qmo after the expulsion of Derna and also with a group of owners that thought
And I know that the official Endowments in Sirte named (Mohammed Abdullah Warfali) is one of the followers of this thought and known in the city when the Salafists Bdilalh by events have recruited young people and preachers and the hand-picked choice consistent with the beliefs of his faith
And that they have broadcast video and audio formats called (channel unification) Perhaps the person who knows their approach slag slag will know as soon as their channel listening or watching them and God, a tool for evil
Please my brother to publish this publication is to teach people what is happening in Sirte and that there are people on the doctrine of the Ancestors calling to God for insight in Sirte.
(Written by Abu Bara ‘Alsartaoa)
Martyr Gaddafa Tribal sheikh ZHAID of Sirte who was imprisoned:
Council of elders of the tribes and social Rafla, from prisons
Corner, and the atmosphere of joy permeated the city of Bani Walid after sinking
Helicopter carrying sheikhs
– Sheikh Faraj Bogmad
– Sheikh Bashir Rezgui
– Sheikh Musa Shafter
– Sheikh Mohammed Barghouti
“Hello: Youth Alawath tribe celebrates the return of the elders and Guiblh Rafla to their parents and their families; and praise God for their safety.”
Young folks Alawakir Ihnoa Bani Walid tribe sheikhs and return Rafla may Allah in their age.
Where the headquarters of receiving delegations of well-wishers,
# Çanakkale Dard _ News
Council received social tribes and Rafla many delegations Libyan tribes and cities to congratulate the members of the exit of the Social Council of detainees, and the tribes are “Rishvana, boys Break, wind, department in Ajeelat, Tarhounah, the Sunday market, a delegation from the eastern tribes”
How much you need them the tribe
And how the nation needs them:
Libyan National Congress vote on a roadmap on the return of people to their city of Tawergha.
12.08.2013 | 8:39 p.m. News Arab world
The voice of the members of the General National Congress in Libya on Dec. 8 / December on a roadmap on the return of displaced persons from the area of the soles of the mountain and the city of Tawergha to their homes.
According to a source from the National Congress that the number of those who voted on this resolution 118 members of the 135 who attended the session in the evening.
The source explained that the displaced from the area of the soles of the mountain will be coordinated to return to their area within 10 days from the vote on this resolution. He added that the conference will be a committee on the issue of the displaced residents of Tawergha working on receiving complaints from them, and in turn will create a Ministry of Justice and the courts to decide on the urgent issues of Tawergha prisoners who will be handed over to the national army and the Attorney General by the cities who are out.
The source continued that the government will then develop a specific mechanism for the return of the people of Tawergha for their city, and the construction and rehabilitation of the region and a new attempt to compensate those affected.
http://arabic.rt.com/news/636565/ :روسيا اليوم
The sincerity succeeded …
Tawergha … Finally Back
General National Congress voted in favor of the roadmap provided by a member of the National Congress for Tawergha Mari’s departure and put all the facilities for the return of the displaced people of Tawergha particular arrangement at the highest levels of this decision and all thanks to a lot of good in the National Congress and all of the reason to vote for the resolution and make it a success.
(Youth Organization for Tawergha)
THURSDAY, 19 APRIL 2012
The Fall and Purge of Tawergha
last edits 23 April 2012The City
|Photo: David Enders,/MCT|
Tawergha (Arabic: تاورغاء) lies about 30-40 miles south of Misrata/Misurata, along the western coast of the Gulf of Sirte. Its population is unclear (30,000 cited more commonly) and recently changed (to zero?). From the Wikipedia entry (which uses a different and common spelling – “Taworgha” – and the Arabic cited), it’s a town that’s occupied by an unstated number of people of unknown type. A Euronews dispatch filming a clash there in May called it a “no man’s land” between rebel and loyalist areas.
“The origin of this black population in North Africa gos back to the roman empire days , when the slavery trade was a good businesses by bringing the blacks from meddle Africa to export them from Misratah port ( was known as Kayvalai Bromentoriom )* to old Rome.
The sick who can not make it to the port and the long trip by ship was left behind at that spot, which is known for its swamps and jungles ( Libya was called the ‘Bread Basket of Europe’, because of the moderate climate and fertility of soil during the Roman time, and was one of the main exporters of grains to Rome )
It also noted that ‘control of Taworgha helped the Romans coordinate control of Libya.’ ”
Wikipedia cites a start to the Battle of Tawergha on August 11, and end on the 13th, which seems accurate enough by what else I’ve seen.
‘Cleansed’ Libyan town spills its terrible secrets
By Tarik Kafala BBC News, Libya, 12 December 2011 Last updated at 10:16 GMT
The 30,000 people living in a town in northern Libya have been driven out of their homes, in what appears to have been an act of racist-hate and misguided revenge. So what really happened in the town of Tawergha? Are the accusations of brutality against the town’s residents fair and what does it say about hopes for national unity?
In the middle of August, at the end of the siege of Tripoli, Misratan forces drove out everyone living in Tawergha, a town of 30,000 people.
Human rights groups have described this as an act of revenge and collective punishment possibly amounting to a crime against humanity.
Tawerghans are mostly descendants of black slaves. Tawerghans were broadly supporters of his regime. Some signed up to fight for him as the GREAT JAMAHIRIYA fought for its survival.
It illustrates how difficult national reconciliation is going to be in some areas. Those that overthrew the GREAT JAMAHIRIYA are imposing summary, brutal force and terrorist-tortures on some of the communities that sided with the former regime and were vanquished.
“There is no evidence that rapes occurred… they drove us out because they want our land and homes”
(Umm SaberTawerghan refugee)
As you enter Tawergha from the main road, the name is erased from the road sign. It is now eerily silent but for the incongruously beautiful bird song. There were a few cats skulking about, and one skeletal, limping dog.
Building after building is burnt and ransacked. The possessions of the people who lived here are scattered about, suggesting desperate flight. In places, the green flags of the former regime still flutter from some of the houses.
Buildings show the scars of heavy bombardment, some are burnt out shells, some are just abandoned. The town is empty of humans, apart from a small number of Misratan militiamen preventing the return of the town’s residents.
Those that escaped the town are now scattered across the country. As many as 15,000 people are in Hun, in central Libya. Some are in Sabha and Benghazi, and more than 1,000 are in a refugee camp in Tripoli.
This camp, run by the LibAid humanitarian organisation, was a building site abandoned early in the uprising by the foreign construction workers who lived and worked there. It teems with women and children. There are men about, but they are very few and keep out of sight. The women are ready to talk but they want to cover their faces.
Umm Bubakr can’t trace one of her sons. “They bombed and shot at us and we had to run away. I ran away with my kids. I’ve lost a boy and I don’t know whether he is alive or dead. And now we are here, with no future. We are scared, we need a solution to our problem and we want to go home.”
She says there are nightly raids by Misrata militiamen on the camp, to take away young men. They are not seen or heard of again.
Umm Saber says militiamen claim her nephew has confessed to raping a woman from Misrata, but she swears that he does not know the meaning of the word.
“There is no evidence that rapes occurred. They drove us out because they want our land and homes,” she adds.
Outside in the yard, as we leave the camp, the children gather to sing a protest song about their captivity in the new, free Libya.
Today the town of THORGAE is used by MISURATA as a training camp for urban warfare exercises by various Salafist groups.
Other parts in the suburbs have been illegally sold to Israel, Turkey and Qatar.
FALSE evidence of rapes and other crimes have eventually emerged, and it seems that Tawerghans
are being collectively blamed for the imaginative crimes the opposition purposely created, largely because the people of Tawergha were al-Jamahiriya loyalists and supportive of Mu’ammar al-Qathafi.
In Misrata, workmen are converting the former state security building into a prison, floor by floor. Conditions here appear to be good, though it is overcrowded.
The prison is a hell-hole. Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF), a humanitarian organisation, runs a small hospital, a pharmacy and a counselling service in the prison.
Hundreds of men and young adolescents from Tawergha and BANI WALID are held here. A prison warden invites volunteers to speak to us. He insists they can speak freely and there will be no repercussions. (HAH HAH–boiling bodies alive in giant pots!!)
Torture claims and forced expulsions.
Many cities and communities suffered terribly in the war. Tawergha, Tarhounah and al-Qathafi’s home town of Sirte, which was devastated by heavy shelling, are just three examples.
But they have no voice in the new Libya, as they were on the losing side.
Each battalion and company of the defense force Cyrenaica and guard oil installations and all Jealous at home and on the soil gently to go immediately to the Crescent oil because there is confirmed information about the rally forces from the province of Tripoli, troops backed by a fifth column of tails gently to break into the ports of oil after the failure of a meeting Basha Alatyosh .. ÇáÝŇÚÉ ÇáÝŇÚÉ O Hlha.
In the meantime, spins in Ajdabiya closed-door meeting between the head of the political council of the region of Cyrenaica Ibrahim Jdharan, and Basha favor Alatyosh tribal elder Moroccans, on the closure of the oil and the news of the consensus in favor of the issue delicately.
Libya’s Green Mountain Project:
Ambitious Plan for a sustainable
By: Karen Dabrowska
The Green Mountain Project for a sustainable future – implementing
the Cyrene Declaration of 2007, is one of the projects to promote
and protect Libyan heritage.
The Green Mountain Project for a sustainable future – implementing
the Cyrene Declaration of 2007, is one of the projects to promote
and protect Libyan heritage.
The GREAT JAMAHIRIYA must be credited with the
Cyrene Declaration of September
2007 when it recognised a
significant part of the Green
Mountain as a protected zone,
with the ancient site of Cyrene ( A
Roman city) as a centrepiece. The
main recommendation was for the
establishment of protective ‘buffer’
zones for the most important sites
in the Green Mountain Area
(Cyrene, Apollonia, Ptolemais and
For archaeologists this is one of
the most enticing regions in the
world. Cyrene was a vast Greek
city in the 7th century B.C.,
including temples, gymnasiums
and villas with luxurious mosaics.
“This place was really, really rich,”
said Serenella Ensoli, director of
the Italian Archaeological Mission
to Cyrene, who has been working
on the site for nearly 30 years. She
noted that the leader of Cyrene
brought the emperor Nero a
kilogram of silphyium – a medicinal
plant that was more expensive
than gold. In the 1st century A.D.,
the city was part of the Roman
Apollonia was a Greek city which
served as a port to nearby Cyrene,
but eventually supplanted it as the
leading city in Cyrenaica on
account of the tedium to bring
goods several kilometers inland
and 625 meters up the plateau.
There was a temple to an unknown
A canyon in the Green Mountains
deity which had 11 x 6 columns
dating to about 300 BCE which
was repaired under Roman rule.
Unfortunately this could not be
found as most of the columns
appear to have been used in
Christian churches and basilicae.
Of the port, only a few rocks
remain, which give a reasonable
impression of the piers which
protected the vital sea trade.
The governor’s palace appears to have
heavy Byzantine overtones. Only
about five percent of the city has
The port of Tolmeitha or
Tholmeithah is generally know as
Ptolemais after Ptolemy III. The
village is located in a beautiful
area between the Green Mountain
and the sea, about 30 km east of
Almerj (Berqa). It was founded as
a port to serve Almerj, after it
became a busy commercial centre
during the sixth century BC, with
goods arriving from the nearby
ports, such as Alexandria in Egypt,
as well as to export the main
produce of the region, like silphium,
honey, butter and grains. Tolmeitha
rose to fame very quickly and
became the capital of Cyrenaica
during the 4th and 5th centuries
Historical records show that the
port was originally called “Berqa
Cyrene Port”, which also indicates the
existence of the site before the
Greek invasions, after which it
became known as Ptolemais.
It was thought that the city was
founded during the reign of
Ptolemy III, after his marriage to
the local princess Berenice, who
gave her name to ancient Berenice
Tokra was an important export port
during the Greek period, which
became a busy commercial centre
after falling under Roman influence
during the first century BC.
The city began to loose its status during
the Byzantine period, and by the
time it was taken by Ibn Ala’s she
was no more.
The Italian colonisers also made
their presence felt in the area and
recommendations were made to
rehabilitate the near-abandoned,
Italian-built villages of Tolmeita,
Susa and Tocra, partly in
recognition that Ottoman and
Italian buildings which also formed
part of Libyan heritage, but
principally to provide new homes
for Libyan families and facilities for
tourists. A proposal to use
abandoned Italian farm and
military buildings for tourist use
was also put forward together with
a scheme to use the site of Tocra
as a training school for a new
generation of Libyan archaeologists
and heritage managers.
“I had the privilege to work with
Norman Foster and Associates as
team archaeologist, to prepare a
brief history and a preliminary
appraisal of the present status of
the most important archaeological
sites in the declaration area and
make a series of recommendations
for the future”, Dr Paul Bennett,
head of the Society for Libyan
Studies Mission said in a recent
lecture on a new future for Libya’s
“The most important products of
the work were recommendations
for the establishment of protective
protocols for archaeology within
the development planning process,
recommendations for the
establishment of protective ‘buffer’
zones for the most important sites
in the Green Mountain Area
(Cyrene, Apollonia, Ptolemais and
Tocra), for a World Heritage
Management Plan to be drawn up
for Cyrene and, above all, support
for the Department of Antiquities in
the form of training, capacity
building and funding, to assist
them to become a better curator
and custodian of Libyan Heritage
and an effective archaeological
contractor, undertaking high
quality fieldwork in advance of
development, within a statefunded archaeological service.
“Additional reports were prepared
to prevent the building of a new
coast road planned to cross the
ancient site of Ptolemais; to
prevent the bulldozing of the
modern town of Shahat, and to put
forward a strategy for the surveying
of a proposed new Shahat, an
area of some 16 sq km to the south
of the existing town.
“The Green Mountain Project
report was submitted in July 2009.
The coast road was stopped, but
in January 2011, I was given the
news that the people had decided it would
be built after all.
The bulldozing of SHAHAT remained undecided until
very recently. The 35,000 people
living in the town made their views
known in late 2010 they wanted it; but in 2011 the new Interim Government of the NTC under NATO, stopped all construction plans.
At the same time,
the detailed proposal for the new
town imaginatively produced by
Edward Cullinan Architects was
published. Despite continued
requests by architects and
archaeologists for archaeological
survey in advance of full design,
and above all construction, no
survey work of significance has
been undertaken to date because of the fall of the ‘GREAT JAMAHIRIYA‘ ”, Dr Bennett said.
It was scheduled to be worked-upon in 2011, when the CIA-led uprising and NATO war intervened.
Memories of a Plan that Muammar al-Qathafi almost completed:
SHAHAT GARDEN CITY in Eastern Libya’s Green Mountain :
Shahat Garden City: Libya’s First Zero Carbon City
|Shahat Garden City: Libya’s First Zero Carbon City
Initial plans have been approved for Edward Cullinan Architects’ (ECA) pioneering masterplan for a zero carbon town in the heart of Libya’s eastern Green Mountain region – al Jabal al Akhdar.Commissioned by the Organisation for Development and Administration Centres (ODAC) and the Libyan Company for Planning and Urban Development (LCPUD), this development is the first of its type in the Middle East and North Africa.ECA said in a press release that they are collaborating with local practices, Libyan Engineering Office (LEO) and Al Mada.Shahat Garden City – Madinat Hadaek Shahat – is located in the renowned Green Mountain region in eastern Libya, only a few kilometres south of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the ancient city of Cyrene.Emphasising the connection to the existing town of Shahat with carefully planned road links, the new, mixed-use development will create homes for 60,000 people over the 1500-hectare site.Dense neighbourhood centres have been achieved through an abundance of mixed use and adaptable buildings that will allow for growth and change according to commercial and social pressures, with new civic buildings, schools, a university and a central botanical garden.Rural smallholdings and wadi farms that help to integrate the farming culture of the local community surround these hilltop centres.Surrounded by desert, the 270-mile (432 kilometres) stretch of coastline is an oasis for the country with a moist and cool climate, similar to parts of Italy and Southern France and unique within Libya.
During the summer, the region experiences a considerable diurnal shift between daytime and nighttime temperatures due to the elevation, continuous wind and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, while during the winter months there is a proven need for homes to be insulated.
The terrain is green with good agricultural land in the wadis and abundant scrub in more exposed areas, with areas of low trees hosting abundant and unique plant and animal life, as well as concealing many archaeological secrets yet to be discovered in their entirety. The project aims to set new standards for building design and public space in Libya without compromising on privacy and cultural imperatives.
Closely following the criteria of the Cyrene Declaration – the Libyan Government’s 2007 vision for a sustainable future in the region – the Shahat Garden City masterplan has been formed from a deeper understanding of what is already there.
On the one hand the site is incredibly rich in important archaeology and unique biodiversity, yet it also consists of fragile agriculture, complex topography, modern infrastructure and a diversifying economy.
These special conditions offer opportunities to create a masterplan design for low carbon living through walk-able neighbourhoods, shaded streets, natural cooling and low energy buildings, wind farms and solar power fields, resulting in a significantly improved urban environment and a highly desirable place to live.
Edward Cullinan Architects have developed expert knowledge of the Green Mountain region, and it is due to their previous research in the area that they were appointed for this project.
In 2008/9 the practice worked with Ramboll on a study that contributed visitor strategies and urban design proposals for towns near the world-renowned Western Pentapolis.
These guidelines are currently under consideration by the Libyan authorities, with the Shahat Masterplan providing the realisation of their carefully considered recommendations before they are brought into Libyan planning law.
The project was due to start on site in 2011.
12/12/2009 at 11:22 |
Posted in Cyrenaica |
The coast of Cyrenaica stretches for about 300 kms, from Tokrah (Tauchera ) in the west to Derna in the east. Unfortunately, there is no coastal road between the mountain and the sea that runs all this area. There exists a small road that connects Tokrah (Tauchera) with Tolmetha ( Ptolemais ) , however on the other side , there is a beautiful modern highway that starts from Soussah (Apollonia) to Derna, passing through Ras al Hilal and Lathroun ( Erythron ) featuring probably the most spectacular scenery in all Libya of the mountain and the sea . These are some pictures of this beautiful area.
Ras Crescent Libya by Green Mountain Alakora [Libya Photographer:Ibrahim AL Agouri]
CASABLANCA / (WHITE CITY):
Shut down the headquarters of the Treasury by some of the demonstrators are demanding their salaries:
Sums for the full year 2013
Continuation of salary as of 2014 Aatdae of any month ((1)) January
Media Salah Bozhidar:
I conducted in connection with a brother Colonel Hamid Hassi now
Akkadian me to Colonel Hamid Hassi, a good health
Now on the way back to the city of Casablanca.
Tema after commissioning
Colonel Hamid Hassi by the Ministry of Defence to go to South down to
Kufra city to resolve the problem between Altbooazwai ..
Loss of contact with Colonel Hamid Hassi
The head office of Colonel Hamid Hassi that he had lost contact with him,
which is the power of 217 of the Ministry of Defense, and that in the gate (60) while on his way to the city of Kufra to contain the crisis there and at the request of the tribes Tabu and Azhoyh and commissioned by the Ministry of Defense.
He added, Director, Office of Hamid Elhasy / Fayez Faraj Al Barsha that was the last contact such as access to Bawwabat (60) and then subjected to very heavy fire on the convoy which hamstrung contact us.
This is precisely what happened and not, as was rumored through the media and the recent Hamid Elhasy
What happened shows the convoy, which was destined for Hamlet, the dense Shooting
In gate 60, to contain the crisis at the request of the tribes
Azwaip and Tabu, and commissioned by the Ministry of Defence.
The unknown group Bermaah on convoy
At the gate (60) .. Without the presence of human damage.
if you recall:
Cyrenaica military council chief escapes assassination attempt: report
By Maha Ellawati and Valerie Stocker.
Hamid Al-Hassi, commander of the Cyrenaica Transitional Council’s military wing
Benghazi/Tripoli, 05 November 2012:
The head of the newly proclaimed Cyrenaica Transitional Council’s military wing, Hamid Al-Hassi, narrowly survived an assassination attempt in Benghazi last night, Sunday, according to local reports. One of his bodyguards was said to have been killed in the attack and two others injured. It appears to be the latest in a string of targeted assassinations and assassination attempts over the past year in Benghazi and follows two days of violence in the city .
The attack is said to have occurred in the of Sidi Khalifa district. According to an account Al-Hassi gave to Solidarity Press, a group of heavily armed men in a vehicle tried to ambush him on the road to his farm. He escaped because he did not, he claimed, “go all the way to the farm” with his bodyguards. The attackers’ car, however, drove up to the gate and opened fire on the guards, killing one and injuring two others.
Al-Hassi is a controversial figure in Libya with many criticising him for his militant support for federalism and the Great Jamahiriya, accusing him of creating division (fitna) in the country.
Al-Hassi in Benghazi, during September 2012, was involved in efforts to dismantle the Salafist group “Ansar Al-Sharia”, and the reason for his being targeted for assassination.
Cyrenaica military leader Hassi in Tripoli hotel “seige”
Tripoli, 4 February 2013:
Colonel Hamid Al-Hassi, the leader of the military wing of the newly proclaimed Cyrenaica Transitional Council, has said he was besieged in a Tripoli hotel yesterday by an armed group trying to arrest him. In written statement read out on Al-Asima TV today, Monday, he said that the siege had gone on for more than five hours but that eventually his bodyguards had managed to get him out safely, aided by local residents and revolutionaries.
He did not say who the armed group was.
Last night, it was briefly reported on the General National Congress’ Facebook page that Hassi had been shot at while leaving a hotel in Tripoli’s Omar Mukhtar Street. It was “brief” because the story then disappeared from the page.
No official reason for Hassi’s presence in Tripoli has been given although there have been reports that he had come to the capital to talk to about the possible replacement of Chief of Staff Yousef Mangoush and to present himself as a potential successor.
The presence of Hassi in Tripoli will have been seen as provocative by some elements in the city in view of the Cyrenaica federalists’ call for mass demonstrations in Benghazi and elsewhere on 15 February. The call has sparked fears of violence on the day and has prompted a security clampdown across the country.
There was an attempt to assassinate the controversial Hassi in November in Benghazi. One of his bodyguards was said to have been killed in the attack.
The death of Kamal Pazazh of his wounds after the assassination attempt Benghazi
He died late Sunday night, the Director of Islamic Affairs, the Ministry of Interior colonel, “Kamal Hassan Mohamed Bzazh” wounds sustained by noon on Saturday as a result of planting an explosive device in his car, after he delivered a speech on Friday, attacking what he called Baltkvarien and killers of police and army, and will pray by the funeral prayer after prayer at noon today in the city of Benghazi, Hawari cemetery.
Salem al-Obeidi reports:
Even the graves have not been spared the bombing Where Abnghaza????
A large explosion at the cemetery Hawari.
International channel Libya Libya International Channel
Room joint security Benghazi: the explosion that occurred today at the funeral of Colonel “Kamal Pazazh” edited by anti-tank mine laying in the car on the side of the road and was aimed at injuring a number of security leaders that were present during the funeral today.
A car bombing in the Hawari cemetery during the funeral of the late Colonel Kamal Bzazh.
Blast Searhand Hawari cemetery and the number of casualties:
1 dead and now underway to get to the name.
God bless his soul and Aghafrlh.
6 Hawari General Hospit
And 2 wounded, hit by a minor are:
Omar Abdul-Karim, Abdullah Aujali.
Access 5 wounded to hospital Hawari now, in the bombing of al-Hawari Vemetery
Shortly before by obscurantist.
It is not recognized and the wounded, “Abdullah Aujali” and
“Omar Abdul Karim”, in a car after the funeral of Colonel
Salafi Al-Khatib and the slain him, “Kamal Bzazh” shortly before.
Not around and no power except God.
One of the cases do, which arrived at the hospital because of
The bombing, which occurred in front of the tomb of Hawari :
Invitations to the people gathered in front of Benghazi Tbsta and
dropping the local council for the city of Benghazi conspirator Brotherhood.
TOBRUK, DERNA & THE TUBER:
Urgent tomorrow in celebration of the city of Tobruk out Mhaúj Ezz sheikhs
and Rafla p any Werfalli attendance Field martyrs of Tobruk after age directly.
Tobruk residents are discussing arms in the city:
Some called on the institutions of civil society and political activists and the Elders and tribal elders Btabriq, on Sunday, the components of society and the tribal area of Tobruk Ghazala was appointed to the west and south Giarabub, and Assistant to the east, to attend the meeting which will start at exactly twelve o’clock noon today.
Page said the local council of Tobruk through the social networking site “Facebook”, said the meeting will discuss all aspects of ending the arms outside the framework of the state, and the issue is not the legality of the weapon only in the framework of the institutions of the army and police. The meeting will also discuss ways to discuss the reopening of oil ports in order to preserve social peace and security in the region and the areas where the existing export ports.
PICTURE BELOW, SHOWS TOBRUK at NIGHT:
Site of Brega Oil Marketing
BREGA / RAS LANAUF / GULF of SIDRA (all now part of CYRENAICA):
The Political Bureau of Cyrenaica urgently needs to gently youth from Ajdabiya and Benghazi and al-Bayda and Tobruk and the entire cities and villages of Burqa and so go and sit peacefully in the ports of Brega and Azwaitina and Ras Lanuf and Sidra. It urgent and can not be delayed because of that there is a plan to break into the ports are set up in Tripoli in secret and has been leaked in the last moments …. It’s a matter of life or death for the motionless Barqawi not Takzloa tenderly O rejuvenated after sheikhs and Sheyyab given you the green light ….
Ras Lanuf, Brega. Sidra .………….
# Scared of dampers it is serious.
BIG FAKE GNC TALE:
Agency urgently Libya / agreement to reopen oil ports during the week of Benghazi
(Agency urgently Libya) special correspondent Benghazi
The reporter said the agency urgently Libyan city of Benghazi, confirmed information that may be gleaned from reliable sources that the secret agreement between the interim government on the one hand and the Executive Office of the territory of the other hand gently on the reopening of oil ports during the week.
According to sources, our correspondent in the city of Benghazi,
Ms. Undersecretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs “Fulfillment Boukaaqis” the role of mediator between the two parties, since for quite some time that culminated in its mediation of this agreement which provides for the formation of a commission of inquiry composed of Libyan experts and international experts to investigate the sale of oil without counters.
Covered Ports :
Abu Kammash, Ajdabiya, Al Khoms, Benghazi, Derna, Homs, Marsa El Brega, Ras El Hilal, Ras Lanuf, Tobruq
Terrorist groups that left the tuber settle in Ras al-Hilal.
Seen military vehicles and cars SUV belonging to the militia emerging from Mudbna tuber in the village, “the head of Crescent” on the coastal road, According to the witnesses from the village, which lies 40 kilometers from the city of Derna.
Witnesses observed the process of re-positioning after tightening the screws on the existence of these militias in Derna, after the popular movement that rejects her and continuing for six consecutive days, where it lost Moaqaa many of these groups were inhabited.
New species inhabiting Ras al-Hilal:
The “ANSAR al-SHARIA BUG” (FOR REAL)
New species. Cyrenaica.
Ra’s al Hilal, 06/05/2004 on Pistacia lentiscus; Wadi al Kuff, 29/06/2003 on Quercus coccifera; Ra’s al Hilal, 27/06/2004 on Arbutus pavarii Pamp.
count primarily on the people of the city of Derna and Thoarha true for the success of my mission in policing and Asttbabh
Tuber: Back to work today in most educational institutions, banks, companies and shops, after the establishment of civil disobedience in the city as long as a full week, accompanied by protests and demonstrations daily calls to renounce violence and activation of state institutions in the city.
As stated .. The bombing of the stores to shops Aldpiani in tuber:
Urgent Gallo ::::::::
The arrival of experts from the United Nations to help find out the causes of the explosion of the ammunition depot in Barak beach
Sent the United Nations Mission of “Support” in Libya, a team of experts to provide technical advice in dealing with the effects of the blast in the stores of weapons and ammunition Barak beach area in southern Libya.
The mission said in a statement on Saturday, they sent a team specialized in dealing with mines and explosives to Barak beach to assess the situation, and put three other teams on standby, to start cleansing the vicinity of the blast area if requested by the Libyan authorities.
He had been commander of the base Barak stressed that the air blast, which occurred inside the armories at the base, occurred after the entry of groups from the region to the headquarters of Aldshmat to steal gear, causing the occurrence of many explosions and injuries among Mguethami al-Qaeda.
“CHATERRING FEET, UNO in LIBYA”
Photo of the day at the headquarters of Military Region Sabha
And a statement to the region commander Colonel Abdul Hafeez Emhemed
The landing of the army into the streets of the boldness of security in the city and secured.
As Aujali added that electricity was cut off completely yesterday for the city’s hospital as a result of running out of fuel for electric generator at the hospital, and bakeries stopped working permanently and the city is witnessing a rise of the prices of foodstuffs.
Aujali said that running out of fuel will lead to permanently stop the study due to lack of fuel for neighborhoods and areas far from the city.
The sit-in for the TPU field prevents the arrival of the torch fuel trucks to the power station feeding electricity to the city has led to power cuts Kufra city and its suburbs.
Alruyemi prison shortly before :::
Since the half-hour: Prison Alruyemi, blackouts (the distribution of loads)
from the prison generator and unemployed, and the state of security alert around the prison
And now been running the generator
Shortage in supply commodities as a result of the blockade of the infidels by armed groups led to lock most bakeries in the city.
Nasir Trabelsi Trabelsi:
” speak to Alaaza .. Z Majplhm weapons from Sudan .. Ajblhm Supply of Sudan. Nin lifting the blockade and two-dimensional mesh ..
and Rahm place Dahab ..”
Kufra trail from Sudan:
Report Arab authorized supporters of Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia:
Indicates that all the deaths in Tunisia were trained in Misurata;
and those trained in Derna, Libya, went to Syria.
27 JULY 2010:
We can build United States of Africa, Gaddafi says
BY SALAH SARRAR
KAMPALA Tue 27 July 2010 7:31pm EDT(Reuters) – Libyan leader Muammar al-Qathafi said on Tuesday his dream of a United States of Africa was still alive and this week’s African Union summit was another step toward that objective.al-Qathafi has been pushing for an African unity government for years, saying it is the only way Africa can develop without Western interference, but many African states say the idea is impractical and would encroach on their sovereignty.Like previous African summits, this week’s gathering in the Ugandan capital Kampala discussed steps toward creating an African government, but the issue was overshadowed by chaos in Somalia and an international arrest warrant for Sudan’s president.
“I am satisfied that Africa is going along its historic and right road,”al-Qathafi told a small group of reporters in Kampala at the end of the summit.
“One day it will become similar to the United States of America.”
“We are approaching the formation of the African Authority, and each time we solve African problems and also move in the direction of peace and unity. We deal with problems step by step. We are continuing to do that,”al-Qathafi said.al-Qathafi held the African Union’s rotating chairmanship last year, and he used it to push for the organization’s small executive body to be granted enhanced powers and remodeled as the African Authority.Asked about that proposal on Tuesday, al-Qathafi said:“Studies are still continuing and it is not finished yet. Experts and the people responsible are still studying the documents. They might be completed at the next summit or after.”
Tomorrow Monday, 09/12/2013, God willing, exactly nine o’clock in the morning will be held at the New Cairo Court sentencing hearing, “the final session,” Ali Ahmad Gadaf-DAM Howitzer-blood.
Oldest hominin DNA sequenced
Max Planck researchers sequence the mitochondrial genome of a 400,000-year-old hominin from Spain.
Using novel techniques to extract and study ancient DNA researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have determined an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a 400,000-year-old representative of the genus Homo from Sima de los Huesos, a unique cave site in Northern Spain, and found that it is related to the mitochondrial genome of Denisovans, extinct relatives of Neandertals in Asia. DNA this old has until recently been retrieved only from the permafrost.
Sima de los Huesos, the “bone pit”, is a cave site in Northern Spain that has yielded the world’s largest assembly of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 skeletons, which have been excavated and pieced together over the course of more than two decades by a Spanish team of paleontologists led by Juan-Luis Arsuaga. The fossils are classified as Homo heidelbergensis but also carry traits typical of Neandertals. Until now it had not been possible to study the DNA of these unique hominins
Homo heidelbergensis Sima de los Huesos Credit Javier Trueba Madrid Scientific Films
Matthias Meyer and his team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have developed new techniques for retrieving and sequencing highly degraded ancient DNA. They then joined forces with Juan-Luis Arsuaga and applied the new techniques to a cave bear from the Sima de los Huesos site. After this success, the researchers sampled two grams of bone powder from a hominin thigh bone from the cave.
They extracted its DNA and sequenced the genome of the mitochondria or mtDNA, a small part of the genome that is passed down along the maternal line and occurs in many copies per cell. The researchers then compared this ancient mitochondrial DNA with Neandertals, Denisovans, present-day humans, and apes.
From the missing mutations in the old DNA sequences the researchers calculated that the Sima hominin lived about 400,000 years ago. They also found that it shared a common ancestor with the Denisovans, an extinct archaic group from Asia related to the Neandertals, about 700,000 years ago. “The fact that the mtDNA of the Sima de los Huesos hominin shares a common ancestor with Denisovan rather than Neandertal mtDNAs is unexpected since its skeletal remains carry Neandertal-derived features”, says Matthias Meyer. Considering their age and Neandertal-like features, the Sima hominins were likely related to the population ancestral to both Neandertals and Denisovans. Another possibility is that gene flow from yet another group of hominins brought the Denisova-like mtDNA into the Sima hominins or their ancestors.
“Our results show that we can now study DNA from human ancestors that are hundreds of thousands of years old. This opens prospects to study the genes of the ancestors of Neandertals and Denisovans. It is tremendously exciting” says Svante Pääbo, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
“This unexpected result points to a complex pattern of evolution in the origin of Neandertals and modern humans. I hope that more research will help clarify the genetic relationships of the hominins from Sima de los Huesos to Neandertals and Denisovans” says Juan-Luis Arsuaga, director of the Center for Research on Human Evolution and Behaviour. The researchers are now pursuing this goal by focusing on retrieving DNA from more individuals from this site and on retrieving also nuclear DNA sequences.
Contributing Source : Max Planck Society